Terms in this set (16)

- Zahir al-Din Muhammad known as Babur "the tiger" was a chaghatai turk who claimed descent from chinggis khan and tamerlane, he wanted to transform his inheritance from his father (who was prince of farghana) into a central asian empire, but he has trouble with this so he turns to india instead, he mounts invasions and captures Delhi in 1526, he ended up creating a loosely knit empire that went from Kabul through Punjab to Bengal and founded the Mughal dynasty (mughal is persian for "Mongol")
- Babur's grandson Akbar was the real architect of the mughal empire, he attained power by throwing an imperial court challenger, Adham Khan, out a window, Akbar created a centralized administrative structure with ministries regulating the provinces of the empire, he also absorbed the kingdom of Vijayanagar, Akbar was also a thoughtful, reflective ruler who was interested in religion and philosophy, *he pursued a policy of religious toleration hoping to reduce tensions between hindus and muslims, he encouraged the elaboration of a syncretic faith called "the divine faith" that focused on the emperor as a ruler common to all religious, ethnic, and social groups in india
- mughal empire reached its height under Aurangzeb, he mounted campaigns to expand mughal power into southern india, there was rebellion and religious tension btwn hindus and muslims during his reign, he did NOT follow akbar's religious toleration and imposed a tax on hindus to encourage conversion to islam, this led hindus and local leaders to organize movements to rebel against mughal authority
- ottoman, safavid, and mughal empires all came about bc of military superiority, the emperors owned all land and granted use of it to peasant families on the basis of taxes, in these empires the authority of the dynasty derived from the military prowess of the ruler and his ancestors, their authority reflected steppe traditions, the emperors did what they wanted, for example the ottoman sultans issued legal edicts (the greatest of these edicts was the 'kanun' meaning "laws" issued by suleyman who was referred to as the "lawgiver"
- bc steppe practices called for the ruler's relatives to manage parts of the state, this made succession to the throne in these empires a hot topic, early ottomans assigned provinces for the sultan's sons to administer but kept the empire tightly unified, but after mehmed the conqueror decreed that a ruler could kill off his brothers after taking the throne, the sultans confined their sons in special parts of the imperial harem and protected them
- women played important roles in islamic empires, the emperors of these 3 empires followed chinggis khan's thought and reverence for his mother and wife - therefore the wife and mother of the ruler was revered, suleyman became obsessed with a ukrainian concubine named Hurrem Sultana (a.k.a. Roxelana) and consulted her on state policies and made her his legal wife
- in safavid empire in persia, Mahd-e Olya was the wife of one shah and she became the de facto ruler, she wanted to limit the power of the "qizilbash" but then the qizilbash killed her bc of her efforts
- mughal emperor Jahangir also let his wife Nur Jahan run the government, *shah jahan's devotion to his wife Mumtaz Mahal became famous because of the Taj Mahal