Ecology/ photosynthesis/cellular respiration test

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Ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Biosphere
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
Biotic Factor
biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
Abiotic Factor
physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem
Population
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Community
assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area
Ecosystem
collection of all organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment.
Biome
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
Habitat
an area in which an organism lives
Niche
full range if physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way the organism uses those conditions
Predation
an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
Symbiosis
any relationship in which two species live closely together
Mutualism
both speices benefit from the relationship
Commensalism
one member of the association benefits and the other member is neither helped nor harmed
Parasitism
one organism lives on or inside another organism and hurts it
Autotroph
producer
Heterotroph
consumer
Herbivore
only eat plants
Carnivore
only eat animals
Omnivore
eat plants and animals
Detritivore
feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
Trophic level
each step in a food chain or food web
food chain
series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food web
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
biogeochemical cycle
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
nitrogen fixation
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
Denireification
process that releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again
limiting factor
abiotic and biotic factor that restricts number of reproduction and distribution of organisms
primary succession
occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
secondary succession
following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
population density
number of individuals per unit of area
density-independent factor
affect all populations in similar ways regardless of population size
example: natural disasters
density-dependent factor
a limiting factor that depends on population size
example:competition for food
population growth rate
affected by the number of births, the number of deaths and the number of individuals that enters or leaves the population
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support
zero population growth
the limiting of population increase to the number of live births needed to replace the existing population.
demography
scientific study of human populations
decomposer
break down organic matter
energy pyramid
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high energy carbs like sugars and starches
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
thylakoid membrane
saclike body in chloroplasts made of photosynthetic membranes that contain photosystems
light dependent reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
calvin cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds like sugars
glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose in which a molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Krebs cycle
second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy- extracting reactions
electron transport chain
a series of proteins in which high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
competition
occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place or at the same time
tundra
- Characterized as a permafrost (a layer of permanently frozen subsoil)
- Abiotic factors: strong winds; low precipitation; short and soggy summers; long, cold and dark winters; poorly developed soils; permafrost
- Cold temperatures, high winds, the short growing season will limit plant height
coniferous forest
- Mostly the Northern hemisphere
- Abiotic factors: long, cold winters; short, mild summers; moderate precipitation; high humidity; acidic, nutrient poor soils
example: canada
temperate grassland
- Characterized by rich grasses and world's more fertile soils
- Periodic fires and heavy grazing by large herbivores maintain the characteristic plant community
- Abiotic factors: warm to hot summers; cold winters; moderate, seasonal precipitation; fertile soils; occasional fires
desert
- Very dry, dependent on elevation and latitude
- There may be extreme temperature changes during the course of a day, alternating between hot and cold
- The organisms in this biome can tolerate extreme conditions
- Abiotic factors: low precipitation; variable temperatures; soils rich in minerals but poor in organic material
tropical savannah
- More seasonal rainfall than deserts but less than tropical dry forests
- Characterized by a cover of grasses
- Has isolated trees and small groves of trees and shrubs
- Abiotic factors: warm temperatures; seasonal rainfall; compact soil; frequent fires set by lightning
example: africa
tropical rainforest
- Home to more species than all other land biomes combined
- Abiotic factors: hot and wet year-round; thin, nutrient- poor soils