Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (173)
What were the Jim twins known for
Being identical twins, having numerous simularities even though they grew up in a different environment
The complete set of genes an organism processes
How much genes does a human genome contain?
Where are the human genome genes located at in an individual?
On the 23rd chromosome
What are the areas that do not contain any genes?
Red blood cells
female eggs, and male sperm cells (which both contains only 1 copy of human genome)
T/F: each gene consists of a long dna strand
The nucleus of each cell within the body contains how many complete sets of the human genone
2-- 1from mother & 1 from father
How many copies of our genome does an individual contain in their body
What is the Human Genome Project?
Research that is dedicated to sequencing the entire human DNA -- that is to identifying particular sequence of DNA moleucules in the human body
What is the Multi-million dollar project?
The Human Genome Project
What date did scientist complete the 1st draft of the Human genome
T/F: Identifying the sequence of DNA doesn't mean identifying all the functions of these DNA molecules
Although scientists now have the book of "life" they still must figure out what role the genes play in what?
the body, mind, and behavior
What is the first finding of the human genome?
1. the manner in which human genes get decoded into proteins turns out to be far more variable than any other species
(these alternative forms of decoding create large variety of protiens: more seen in mice than in worms: may account for the complex differences we observe between rodents and humans)
What is the second finding of the human genome?
2. These protein coding genes -- making about 2% of the human genome are only part of the story
Many parts of the other 98% of DNA in the human chromosome used to be chalked up as "genetic junk"
Researchers used to believe the genetic junk in DNA served no purpose. What do they believe now?
That not all junk in the DNA is actually junk. Parts of these chunks of DNA have an impact on humans: potentially affecting everything from a persons size to personality
What are the names of the hidden layers of complexity in the human genome?
T/F: most genes within the human genome are not the same for each individual on the planet
False: they are the same: this is why we (have 2 legs, 2 eyes, a heart, etc.)
A small number of genes are different for individuals influencing what?
1. physical traits (Eye color, height, bone width, etc.)
2. behavioral characteristics that define human personality
Researchers studying genes and personalities attempt to determine what?
The degree to wh8ich individiual differences in personality are caused by genetic environment differences
What was the NY Time article that caused controversy on Jan. 2, 1996?
"Variant gene is connected to a love of the search for the new thrills"
(the discovery of a specific gene for novelty seeking: the tendancy to be: extraverted, impulsive, extravagent, etc.)
What was the News article that cause controversy on November 5, 2012
"being perfectionist lies in your genes" -- designer babies: where parents select from a genetic checklist the characteristics their children would have
What are the ideas of the designer babies extremely controversial about?
Because they suggest that gentic diffences among individuals, rather than differences in parental socialization or personal experience, are responsible for shapting the core features of human personality
What are the 2 main reasons for controversy?
1. Ideology -- people worry that findings from behavioral genetics will be used (or misused) to support political agendas
2. The Idea of Eugenics -- people are concerned that findings from gentic studies might be used to support programs inteded to prevent some individuals from reproducing, or worse, to bloster the cause of those who would advocate that some people be eliminated in order to creat a "master" race
What is Eugenics?
The notion that we can desing the future of species by fostering the preproduction of a persons certian traits and by discouraging the reproductions of person without those triats
T/F: finding that a genetic component does not meant that the enviornment is powerless to modify that characteristics
When understanding the primary goals of the field of behavioral genetics which concreate example do they use?
individuals differ in height: some are tall, and others are short
Behavorial genetics focuses on one key questions:
"What causes some individuals to be tall and others to be short?"
In Behavioral genetics there can be a variety of causes of individual height differences, what are 3 examples?
1. different diets growing up
2. genetic differences
3. environmental differences
What is one of the cental goals of behavioral genetic research?
To determine the percent of an individual difference that can be attributed to genetic differences and the percent due to the enviornmental differences
Behavioral genetics: in the case of height what 2 factors are important?
1. genetic factors
2. environmental factors
behavioral genetic research has confirmed what percent of the individual differs in height are due to genetic differences?
What percent from the enviornment contributes to height?
How much has the average adult height increased over the last century? Why do they believe this has happened?
nutrional value of the food consummed
Does the environment modify the height trait?
Yes, but only 10 %
What lesson do we learn from behavorial genetics referring to enviornmental factors and genetic factors?
That even though some observed differences among people can be genetic differences, this does not mean that the enviornment plays no role in modifying traits
Methods used by behavioral genetics examined in this chapter (6) can be applied to individual different variables: these can be used to identify what?
differences in: height, weight, intelligence, personality traits, and attitudes (ex. conservatism and liberalism)
Percentage of Varience
the fact that individuals vary, or are different from each other and this variability can be partitioned into percentages that are due to different causes
Behavorial geneticists first examine what when determing the ways in which genes and the enviornment interact and correlate with each other?
Fundamentals of behavioral genetics: What is heritabilty? what methods do geneticists use to get their answers?
is a statistic that refers to the proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variances
What does Heritablity describe?
the degree to which genetic differences among individuals cause differences in an observed property (ex. height, extraversion, sensation, etc)
T/F: Heritability is one of the most understood concepts
False: one of the most frequently misunderstood
What is the Formal Definition of Heritabilty?
The proportion of phenotypic varience that is attrituteable to genotypic variance
observerd individual differences (height, weight, personality)
Individual differences in the total collection of genes possessed by each person
Heritibility provides useful information in identifying what?
A heritability of .20 means that only 20% of the pheontypic variation is attributable to the genotypic variation --- in this example the enviornmental component is what?
Simply the proportion of pheontypic variance that is not attributed to genetic varience
Heritabilty of .50 means the enviornmental component is 50%. A heritability of .20 means that the enviornmental component is 80% -- These examples illustrate what?
The simpliest cases and assume that there is no correlation or interaction between genetics and enviornmental forces
Enviornmental contribution (Envionmentality)
The percent of observed variances in a group of individuals that can be attributed to enviornment (non-genetic) differences
T/F: The larger the Heritability the smaller the enviornmentality
T/F: The smaller the Heritability the smaller the enviornmentality
False: the smaller the hertiablity the larger the environmentality
What are the 3 misconceptions about heritability?
1. that it can be applied to a single individual (it cannot)
2. That it is constant (it is not)
3. is an absolutely precise statistic (furthest from true)
T/F: For an individual genes and enviornment are inextricably intertwined
What 2 factors play a huge role in height and can't be seperated?
Enviornment and genetics
T/F: Heritability refers only to differences in a sample or population (not an individual)
T/F: heritibility is a statistic that applies only to a poplutation at one point in time in a particular array of enviornments
Can heritability be high in one populaiton and low in another?
If the enviornment changes, does the heritability also change?
T/F: Heritability can be low at one time but not high at another
False: heritability can be low at one time and high at another
What does heritability always depend on when there are differences in the population?
1. the range of genetic differences in the population
2. and the range of enviornmental differences in a population
T/F:Hertibility does not always generalize acoss a persons and populations
What can distort heritabilty statistics?
An error or unreliable measurement, forex
Heritability is not precise and can best be reguarded merely as a what?
an estimate of the % of pheotypic differences due to genetic differences
T/F: Heritability does not refer to an individual
T/F: Heritability is externally fixed
False: Heritability is not externally fixed
What is the nature and nurture debate clarified?
the arguments about whether genes or enviornments are more important when determing personalities
Clarification of the nature and nurture debate come from distinguishing between what 2 levels of analysis?
1. the level of the individual
2. the level of a population of individuals
Level of the individual:
each individual contains a unique set of constellation genes (those genes require enviornments during one's life to produce a recognizable individualt)
In this level: there is no nature or nurtue because there is no debate
Can we logically disentangle genetics and enviornments to determine which is more important, even though they are both necassary?
Level of population of the individuals
we can detangle the influence of genes and enviornment, and view the level at which behavioral genetics opporate
For a particula population at a given point in time, we can make sensable statements about which is more important in accounting differences
Individual in mate preferences (qualities desireed in marriage partner show Heritablity at what rate?
A low rate of .10
Differences in height shows a heritablity of what?
Differences in weight shows a heritability of what?
Which is more important for the heritabilty of height: Enviornmental differences or Genetics differences
Which is more important for heritability of weight: enviornmental differences or genetic differences?
They are actually about equal
Which is more important for heritabiltiy for mate preferences: environmental difference or genetic differences?
Overly important: enviornmental differences
What are the 4 of the methods behavioral geneticists have devolped by teasing apart contributions of genes and enviornment causes of individual differnces?
1. Selective breeding with animals
2. Family studies
3. Twin studies (most well-known)
4. Adopiton studies
studies of humans best friend, occurs by identifying the dogs that possess the desire characteristics and havintg them mate only with other dogs that possess the characteristics
occurs when dogs are bred for certain qualities
In Selective breeding what 2 types of traits are dogs bred for?
1. physical traits
2. behavioral traits
Is selective breeding successful with low heritabilty?
No, fail in selective breeding
If selective breeding has high heritabilty is it successful?
correlate the degree of which genetic relatableness among family members with the degreee of personality similarity
Are there known degrees of genetic relatedness among family members?
Are parents are usually genetically related?
No. they usually are not
What % of genes do parents share with each of their children?
What percent of genes do siblings share?
What % of genes do grandparents and grandchildren share?
What % of genes do Uncles/aunts share with their nieces/nephews?
What % of genes do 1st cousins share?
If personality characteristics are highly heritable, then family member with high genetic relatbleness should be more similar? (Vice versa)
If personality characteristics aren't heritable at all then no matter how genetically similar the 2 relatives are, they shouldn't be what?
more similar with that certain trait than all the others
Family members who share same characteristics/heribility usually share what?
The same enviornment
Can personality traits be from a shared enviornment, and not from genetics?
Family studies alone can be viewed as what?
estimate heritability by gauging whether identical twins, who share 100% of genes are more similar to each other than faternal twins who only share 50% of genes
Which of the 4 studies gain the most media attention?
How often do twins occur?
1 in every 83 births
T/F: nearly all humans/mammals come from a single fertilizied egg, which typically give birth to only one child
What are the two distinct types of twins?
Monozygotic (MZ) Twins:
(Identical twins) -- comes from a single fertilized egg (or zygote), which divides into 2 at some point during gesturation
Dizygotic (DZ) Twins:
(Fraternal twins) -- come from 2 eggs that were seperately fertalized
What percent of genes to fraternal twins share?
Identical twins have to be the same sex, why?
because they share 100% of genes
If fraternal and identical twins are extremely identical in most ways does this mean their personalities are identical too?
What is 1 method for calculating heritability from twin data?
It is to double the differeneces between the MZ correlation and the DZ correlation
(This method can be appled to any characteristics: personality triats, attitudes, religous beliefs, sexual orientation, etc.)
Formula: Heritbaility(^2) = 2(r(little:mz) - r(little:dz))
In the Formula: Heritbaility(^2) = 2(r(little:mz) - r(little:dz))
what does the rmz mean?
the correlation between the coefficent computed between pairs of mz twins
In the Formula: Heritbaility(^2) = 2(r(little:mz) - r(little:dz))
What does the rdz mean?
the correlation coeffiecent between DZ twins
What assumption is important in the twin method?
Equal enviornment assumption
Equal enviornment assumption:
assumes that the enviornment experienced by identical twins ae no more similar to each other than are the enviornments experienced by fraternal twins
(if the enviornments are more similar-- it could mean that the twins are more similar due to the experiences they share rather than their genes)
What is the design to study the validity of the equal enviornment assumption?
to examine twins who have been misdiagnosed as identical or fraternal
(these mistakes allowed researchers to examine whether fraternal twins who believed they were identical were in fact more similar to each other than accurately labeled fraternal twins)
Did the parents beliefs and labeling ofthe twins have an affect on their actual similarities on the personality and cognitive measures?
Out of the four studies which is the most powerful bheavioral genetic methods avaliable?
one can examine the correlations between adopted children and their adoptive parents, withwhom they share no genes. (if positive correlation between adoptive child and parent then it provides strong evidence for enviornmental influences on the personality trait)
Why are adoption studies powerful?
Because they allow us to get around equal environment assumptions
what is the most potential problem for adoption studies?
assumption of representativeness
can the assumption of representativeness be tested and what can it deterimine ?
cognitive abilities, personalities, education level, and even socioeconomic status
Selective placement is another potential problem for adoption studies why?
if adopted children are placed with adoptive parents who are similar to their birth parents, then this my inflate the correlations between the adopted children and their adoptive parents. (because there does not seem to be selective placement, this potiential problem is not a proble in actual studies)
One of the most powerful behavorial genetic diesgns combies what two studies?
Twin studies and adoptive studies
what are the advantages of selective breeding studies?
can infer hertiability if selective breeding works
what are the advantages of family studies?
provides heritability estimate
what are the advantages of twin studies?
provides both heritabilty and enviornmental estimates
what are the advantages of adoption studies?
provides both heritability and enviornmentality estimates; get around the problem of equal enviornment assumptions
what are the limitations of selective breeding studies?
an unethical way to conduct on humans
What are the limitations of family studies?
violate equal enviornment assumptions
what are the limitations of twin studies?
sometimes violtes equal enviornment asummptions
what are the limitations of adoptive studies?
adopted kids might not be representative of population; problem of selective placement
What are the 2 most commonly studied personality traits in behavorial genetic designs?
1. Extraversion -- outgoing
2. Neuroticism -- anxious
activity level is considered what?
a tempermant that shows moderate heritability
A study of 296 twin pairs in Japan revealed moderate hertiability for Cloniger's 7 factor model of temperament and characteristics, which includes dispostions such as:
novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence
T/F: Major personality traits who a modest degree of heritablity
T/F: A substantial portion of the variance in personality traits is environmental in origin
do genes influence occupational prefrences?
yes (also can affect persons life work, social status, and wealth)
is religious attitudes evidence of heritable influces?
no, there is no evidence of a hertiable influence on religious atitudes
Drinking and smoking are often reguarded as behavioral manifestations of personality dispotions such as:
sensation seeking, extraversion and neuroticism
refers to the object of a person's sexual desires, whether the person is sexually attracted to those of the same of opposite sex
the region beleived to regulate male-typical sexual behavior (located in the medial preoptic region of the brain and appairs to be responsiblle for regulating male typical sexual behavior)
How much smaller was the hypothalamus in gay men, rather than in straight men?
2 to 3 times smaller
T/F: genes can influence the propensity to marry or stay single
Men who got married scored higher on what than men who stayed single?
social potency and achievement
what traits are linked with social potency and achievement?
mobility, success in careers, and financial success
do genes play an important role in the quality of marriages?
What are 2 critical distinctions made by behavorial geneticists?
1.shared enviornmental influences
2. non-shared enviornmental influencs
For most personality variables, the shared enviornment has what impact on it?
Little to no impact at all
major break through:
a discovery of a critically important enviornmental variable that has been overlooked by psychologists who for years focused only on the shared enviornment
in some areas, behavorial genetic studies have revealed tremendously important shared enviornmental influences, such as:
attitudes, religious beliefs, political orientations, health behaviors and to some degree verbal intelligence
T/F: enviornments shared by siblings are important in some domains
For trais like extraversion, and neuroticism does shared enviornments matter?
more complex forms of behavioral genetic analysis involve what 2 concepts
1. genotype-enviornment interaction
2. genotype-enviornment correlation
the differentail response of individuals with different genotypes to the same enviornment
What is an example of genotype-enviornment interaction
extraversion--introversion (whereby individuals with different genotypes (introverts and extraverts) respond differently to the same enviornment
the differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different enviornments
What are the 3 very different kinds of genotpe-enviornment correlation described by, Plomin, Defries, and Loehlin?
Passive genotype-enviornment correlation:
occurs when parents provide both genes and the enviornment to children, yet the children do nothing to obtain the enviornment
Reactive genotype-enviornment correlation:
occurs when parents (or others) respond to children differntly, depending on the childs genotypes
Active genotype-enviornment correlation:
occurs when a person with a particular genotype creats or seeks out a particular enviornment
T/F: the 3 genotype-enviornment correlations can be positive or negative
The methods of Molecular Genetics
the methods of molecular genetics are designed to identify the specific genes associated with personality triats
What is the most frequent examine gene?
What is the DRD4 located at?
on the short arm of chormosome 11
gene codes for a protein called a dopamine receptor
What is the function of the dompamine receptor?
It is to respond to the presnce of dompamine (which is a neurotransmitter)
what happens when the dopamine receptor encounters dopamine from other neurons in the brain
it discharges an electrical signal, activating other neurons
personality was determined by socialzation practices, such as parenting style
T/F: the environment causes appear to be mostly of the nonshared variety, that is the different experiences that siblings have even though they are in the same family
T/F: nearly all theories of enviornmental influnce -- such as those that posit the importance of parental values and child-rearing styles -- have been those of the shared variety
One of the most important insights into the nature of nuture is:
the location of the most important enviornmental influences on personality
What is enviornmentality?
the proportion of observed individual differences that is cause by enviornmental differences
Is environmentality a fixed statistic?
no -- it can change over time and situations
What are the 2 exceptions to the relatively little research and attention on bavioral genectic concepts such as: geneotype enviornment correlation?
1. finding that individuals low on Negative Emotionality and high on Constraint recall their early family environment as being extremely close
DRD4 is linked with?
the ways in which people with different genes react differently to the same enviornment
Stressful environments appear to produce depressive symptoms, but primarily in people with what?
the short version of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 8 Psyc: Evolutionary Perspectives on Perso…
Chapter 8: summary and evaluation -- psyc
Chapter 6: summary and evaluation --psyc.
chapter 7 -- psyc
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psych Chap 6
Chapter 6: Genetics and Personality
Chapter 6: Genetics and Personality
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Sociology Chapter 13