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CMST 4102 Midterm
Terms in this set (62)
Speed and Complexity
Two key qualities of organizational transformation
it has been replaced by a shorter term transactional understanding; "renewable" daily based on current needs and performance
How has the traditional long-term career contract changed recently?
characterized by frequent change and self-invention, autonomy, and self-direction - driven by the needs of the person rather than the organization; now more fully emerged than before
1. Career as advancement
2. Career as profession
3. Career as lifelong sequence of jobs
4. Career as lifelong sequence of role-related experiences
4 distinct meanings in which career is used
Career as Advancement
career represents the sequence of promotions or other upward moves in a work-related hierarchy during the course of a person's work life (directionality)
Career as Profession
some kind of career ladder, but stay in that occupation over the course of the person's lifetime; teacher, lawyer, doctor, nurse
Concept of "directionality"
"up is good, down is bad"
Career as a lifelong sequence of jobs
the person's career is his or her series of positions held, regardless of occupation or level, during the course of his or her work life
Career as lifelong sequence of role-related experiences
Career represents the way the person experiences the sequence of jobs and activities that constitute his work history (subjective and objective careers must be considered)
Working Definition of Career (Hall)
... is the individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work-related experiences and activities overs the span of a person's life
Work (course definition)
activities and responsibilities taken on as the result of a psychological or legal contract with an organization
Benefits provided by "work"
Personal values that shape our work choices
-Unconscious socializing agent
-Source of anxiety and depression
Functions of the "real job" colloquialism
judging the quality of a story..
internal consistency (facts in the story match up)
external consistency (does is match up with what you've seen or experienced outside of the story)
character consistency (story matches up with what you know about the characters
When judging the coherence of a story, we look at...
a personal, moving perspective on our working life, including objective facts and the subjective emotions, attitudes and goals of our careers
Fisher's Theory of Narrative (1989)
human rationality in all its forms is based essentially on narrative
"any verbal or nonverbal account that has a sequence of events to which listeners assign meaning"; an account of connected events in order or happening
Constructivism (Jesse Delia and colleagues, 1982)
individuals interpret and act according to conceptual categories of the mind
interpretive schemes; as we grow and learn, we create a more complex set of constructs to unpretentious the world around us
Social Construction of Reality (Peter Berger and Thomas Luckman, 1966)
We socially create reality; it does not exist outside of how you interact with and experience the world; our meanings and understandings arise from our communication with others; knowledge is a social product
2. Meaning/Retrospective Sense-Making
3. Creating the Future
How do stories function?
Identity function of stories
how we speak about our personal stories reflect how we feel about ourselves
Creating the Future function of stories
highlighting certain things that you've done creates a likelihood for people to see a possible future for you
3. Find alternative explanations and options
How do we use public career stories?
2. Upward Movement
3. Success = your Hard Work
What does the "American Dream" teach us?
Components of "American Dream" narrative
if someone has a lot of nice things, they must have worked hard
if you're a good person you will be rewarded
Have to critique American Dream because not everyone has the same opportunities
Is the "American Dream" possible for everyone?
collectively- understood recurrent patterns of career development reflecting common institutional practice
refers to the capacity of human beings to make choices and to impose these choices on the world, which implies having some degree of control over the social relations in which ones is embedded, and an ability to transform these social relations to some extent
"the state of being in action or exerting power"
-moving away from "organization career"
-more changes, more organizations, individuals need to be able to control some of the direction of their careers
Why is agency important in contemporary careers?
a mythical Greek sea creature who could change shape at will
Key ideas to Protean Career:
sense of identity guides the person and provides direction in making career choices
How does identity come into play in the Protean Career?
Social Learning theory
you learn about your own career preferences and attraction to certain careers over the course of your lifetime
1. Instrumental Learning
2. Learning by Association
3. Vicarious Learning
General Types of Learning
where people are reinforced (through praise) for particular responses and punished (by ridicule) for others
Learning by Association
making connections between one positive experiences/stimuli (an enjoyable medical TV show) with a neutral stimuli (such as hospitals)
individuals learn through observation and imitation of others who are career role models
1. Self-efficacy beliefs
2. Outcome expectations
2 Central Variables to Social Cognitive Theory
a person's judgements of their ability to carry out particular actions or activities
a person's expectations about what will happen if they follow a particular course of action
What is career success (objective)?
What is career success (subjective)?
5 Principles of Classical Management (Fayol)
1. Planning and Goal Setting
2. Organizing and Action
3. Evaluation and Reassessment
Summary Categories of Management
applying principles of planning and management to one's own career in pursuit of self-defined objectives
-gathering info about ourselves and the world of work in an organized way
-ensuring feedback loops
Actions as components of career self-management
-"Paralysis by analysis"
-What about spontaneity?
Critiques of Career Planning
-Connections to Certain People
-Knowledge of Certain Fields
What do you inherit?
People who have come before you, that teac you about the world, about work, about careers and prepare you for future life
1. Anticipatory Socialization
Jablin's 3 Phases of Socialization
Socialization that occurs before entry into the organization; can happen at a young age
1. Learning about work (general)
2. Learning about careers/occupations (vocational)
3. Learning about specific organizations (org)
3 areas of focus in Anticipatory Socialization
feel like you've transformed
Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription
involves the progressive development of a zone of acceptable alternatives defined by boundaries relating to the prestige and sextype of the occupation (prestige and masculinity)
"laying down limits, confining, restricting"
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