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Plant Growth and struture
Terms in this set (62)
are plants that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant.
The two major groups of angiosperms are
the monocots and the eudicots
are seed leaves
such as wheat and corn, have
parallel leaf venation,
scattered vascular bundles,
flower parts in threes or multiples of three, and
branched leaf venation,
a ring of vascular bundles,
flower parts in fours or fives (or multiples), and
a taproot system.
consist of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions.
Plants use a root system to
anchor the plant in the soil,absorb and transport water and minerals, and store food.
are tiny tubular projections off of roots that greatly increase the surface area for absorption.
Plants use a shoot system
to absorb the sun's energy and carbon dioxide from the air.
A shoot system consists of
stems,leaves, and adaptations for reproduction
A stem has
Nodes, the points at which leaves are attached, and Internodes, the portions of the stem between nodes.
are at the apex of stems, with developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
are found in the angles formed by the leaf and the stem
In many plants, the terminal bud produces hormones that inhibit growth of the axillary buds in a phenomenon called
Stems may be modified as
Stolon, for asexual reproduction. Tubers, for storage and asexual reproduction. Rhizomes, for storage and asexual reproduction. And Cactus stems, for water storage and photosynthesis.
tissue contains water-conducting cells that convey water and dissolved minerals upward from roots.
tissue contains cells that transport sugars and other organic nutrients from leaves or storage tissues to other parts of the plant.
provides a protective outer covering
provides support and long-distance transport.
composes the bulk of the plant body and is involved in food production,storage, and support.
Dermal tissues form a layer of tightly packed cells called the
epidermis,the first line of defense against damage and infection, and a waxy layer called the cuticle, which reduces water loss.
is composed of
Xylem and phloem and arranged in a vascular cylinder in a root or vascular bundles in stems.
Ground tissues lie between dermal and vascular tissue.
In Eudicot stem and Eudicot root ground tissue is divided into pith and cortex.
in Leaf, ground tissue is called mesophyll.
In a leaf, the epidermis is interrupted by tiny pores called stomata:
which allow exchange of CO2 and O2 between the surrounding air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf.
Each stoma is flanked by two guard cells that regulate the opening and closing of the stoma.
Plant cells have three structures that distinguish them from animal cells
Chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis,
a central vacuole containing fluid that helps maintain cell turgor (firmness), and a protective cell wall composed of cellulose
There are five major types of plant cells with different functions:
parenchyma cells,collenchyma cells,
sclerenchyma cells,water-conducting cells, and food-conducting cells
are the most abundant type of cell in most plants, usually have only a thin and flexible primary cell wall,perform most of the metabolic functions of a plant, such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration and food storage. Also,they can divide and differentiate into other types of plant cells under certain conditions.
Lack a secondary cell wall,
have an unevenly thickened primary cell wall, and provide flexible support in actively growing parts of the plant
have a thick secondary cell wall usually strengthened with lignin, the main chemical component of wood, and cannot elongate at maturity and are therefore found only in regions of the plant that have stopped growing in length.When mature, most sclerenchyma cells are dead, their cell walls forming a rigid "skeleton" that supports the plant.
Two types of sclerenchyma cells are
Fibers, long and slender cells usually arranged in bundles, and Sclereids, shorter than fibers, have thick, irregular and very hard secondary cell walls that impart the hardness present in nut shells and pear tissue.
Water-conducting cells, consists in the Xylem tissue of angiosperms that includes two types of water-conducting cells, tracheids and vessel elements. Both cell types
have rigid, lignin-containing secondary cell walls, are dead at maturity, and form chains with overlapping ends that create tubes within vascular tissue.
Food-conducting cells known as sieve-tube elements
remain alive at maturity but lack most organelles and have end walls, called sieve plates, with pores that allow fluid to flow from cell to cell along the sieve tube
Alongside each sieve-tube element is at least one companion cell
which is connected to surrounding sieve-tube elements by numerous plasmodesmata. Companion cells produce and transport proteins to sieve-tube elements.
Plants are categorized based on how long they live
Annuals complete their life cycle in one year. Biennials complete their life cycle in two years. Perennials live for many years.
Plant growth occurs in specialized tissues called meristems,
which are the tissues of the stem capable of cell division. Consisting of undifferentiated cells that divide when conditions permit, generating new cells.
Which are found at the tips of roots and shoots. Cell division in the apical meristems produces the new cells that enable a plant to lengthen, a process called Primary Growth.
occurs at apical meristems, allows roots to push downward through the soil, and allows shoots to grow upward toward the sun.
Root growth occurs behind the root cap in three zones.
Zone of cell division includes the apical meristem and cells derived from it. Zone of cell elongation, where cells lengthen by as much as 10 times. Zone of differentiation, where cells differentiate into dermal, vascular, and ground tissues, including the formation of primary xylem and primary phloem.
is an increase in thickness of stems and roots and occurs at lateral meristems
are areas of active cell division that exist in two cylinders that extend along the length of roots and shoots.
is a lateral meristem that lies between primary xylem and primary phloem. Also, it's the responsible for the production of secondary growth.
is a lateral meristem that lies at the outer edge of the stem cortex.
Vascular cambium produces cells in two directions
1. Secondary xylem produces wood toward the interior of the stem.
2. Secondary phloem produces the inner bark toward the exterior of the stem.
Cork cambium produces
cells in one direction,
the outer bark, which is composed of cork cells.
consist of parenchyma cells that radiate from the stem's center and function in lateral transport of water and nutrients,storage of starch, and wound repair.
is the younger secondary xylem that does conduct xylem fluid sap
consists of older layers of secondary xylem that no longer transports water and instead stores resins and wastes
Water and solutes can move through the root's epidermis and cortex by going
through cells, between cells, or through some combination of these routes.
Once the water and solutes reach the endodermis, a continuous waxy barrier called the Casparian strip
which stops them from entering the xylem via cell walls and forces them to cross the selectively permeable plasma membrane of an endodermal cell to enter the xylem (water-conducting tissue) for transport upward
dissolved inorganic nutrients.
Xylem tissues of angiosperms consist of very thin tubes composed of two types of cells that conduct xylem sap up a plant which are
tracheids and vessel elements
What force moves xylem sap up against the downward pull of gravity?
Root pressure And Transpiration.
Root pressure consists
in the accumulation of water in roots by osmosis, can push xylem sap up a few meters.
is the loss of water by evaporation from leaves, is regulated by guard cells surrounding stomata and can move xylem sap to the top of the tallest tree
Transpiration can pull xylem sap up a tree because of two special properties of water:
Cohesion is the sticking together of molecules of the same kind, and Adhesion is the sticking together of molecules of different kinds.
The overall process of this movement of xylem sap is called the transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism. In this process,
the air's pull on water creates a tension and that tension pulls on an unbroken chain of water molecules in the xylem held together by cohesion and helped upward by adhesion.
can open and close and help plants adjust their transpiration rates to changing environmental conditions.
Guard cells control the opening of a stoma by changing shape.
Stomata open when guard cells take up water in the following process:
Potassium is actively taken up by guard cells from nearby cells.
This creates an osmotic gradient and water follows.
Uneven cell walls of guard cells cause them to bow when water is taken up.
The bowing of the guard cells causes the pore of the stoma to open.
When guard cells lose K+ ions, the guard cells become flaccid and the stoma closes.
Several factors influence guard cell activity.
In general, stomata are open during the day and closed at night.
Sunlight signals guard cells to accumulate K+ and open stomata.
Low CO2 concentration in leaves also signals guard cells to open stomata.
Plants have natural rhythms that help them close stomata at night to conserve water.Plants may also close stomata during the day to conserve water when necessary.
made by photosynthesis and
using a pressure flow mechanism.
At a sugar source (leaves)
sugar is loaded into the phloem tube,sugar raises the solute concentration in the tube, and water follows, raising the pressure in the tube.
At a sugar sink, (root)
sugar is removed,water follows, and phloem sap flows from source to sink in a process called the pressure flow mechanism.
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