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56 terms

HN Final

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The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is
nitrogen
An essential amino acid
cannot be synthesized in the body if caloric intake is adequate
What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?
pepsin
If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a
limiting amino acid
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is
stored as glycogen and/or fat
The chemical bond joining adjacent amino acids is called a(n) _____________ bond.
peptide
Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to
denaturation
Food proteins are used most efficiently when we
are consuming enough carbohydrates and fats to meet our kcalorie needs
Edema appears when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because
blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues
If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen?
the liver will convert amino acids to glucose
The deficiency that vitamin D prevents
rickets
The deficiency that vitamin A prevents
blindness, xeropthalmia
The deficiency that folate prevents
neural tube defects
The deficiency that niacin prevents
pellagra
The deficiency that vitamin B12 prevents
pernicious anemia
The deficiency that thiamin prevents
beri beri
The deficiency that vitamin C prevents
scurvy
The best suited physiological function of vitamin C is
important to formation of connective tissues (collagen)
The best suited physiological function of vitamin D is
important to calcium metabolism
The best suited physiological function of vitamin B6 is
important to protein metabolism
The best suited physiological function of vitamin A is
required for normal vision
The best suited physiological function of vitamin K is
critical to blood clot formation
Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic
this vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida
folate/folic acid
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
antioxidant
In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
kidneys
The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by
ion concentration
Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
phosphate and potassium.
The body's need for water is approximately ____ milliliter(s) per kcalorie.
1
Minerals are classified in which way?
Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
phosphorus
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
absorption in the small intestine.
The best food source of iron is
liver
A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
iodide
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.
fluoride
Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism (break down) in our body?
liver
The General Guidelines for daily alcohol intake are (less than) _______ drink per day for men and ________ for women.
two;one
Which liver enzyme primarily degrades alcohol?
alcohol dehydronase
Which statement best explains drug potentiation (magnified effect of drug) when one drinks excessively while on certain medicines?
Both the medicine and alcohol rely on the MEOS to detoxify them and MEOS can't do both.
Which of the following is true about ethanol after it has been ingested?
Alcohol acts as a toxin in our body and the liver does it's best to get rid of it.
What is cirrhosis?
A progresssive scarring and fibrosis of the liver.
How much whiskey is considered one serving of alcohol?
1.5 ounces
Red wines may reduce heart disease when consumed in moderation.
True
There are two types of ADH. One is a hormone and the other is an enzyme. Both are associated with alcohol. Which of the following statements is true?
1.Alcohol dehydrogenase along with niacin (NAD) converts alcohol to acetaldehyde.
2.Antidiuretic Hormone controls the amount of fluid (water) reabsorbed by the kidneys and returns it to general circulation.
3.Alcohol is a potent inhibitor of Antidiuretic Hormone
4.The most significant amount of alcohol dehydrogenase is found in the liver.
The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is
direct calorimetry
The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called
indirect calorimetry
When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.
24%
When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.
35%
Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
the body mass index
Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat?
body mass index
Android obesity is associated with a higher incidence of all the following except
skin cancer
Which of the following is not an acceptable goal for weight control programs?
5 pounds weight loss per week
A daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week?
1
The body's set point has been suggested to be
a weight to which the body closely regulates