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Ch 7 Cycles
Terms in this set (117)
Which of the cycles has no atmospheric component?
Is the loss of water vapor from plants and is released into the atmosphere
When water is converted from liquid to water vapor
Water entering the soil
Water moving through the soil
Name 3 ways in which water in the atmosphere may eventually return to the oceans
1. groundwater movement
2. surface runoff
3. precipitation into the ocean
What 2 biological processes are responsible for cycling carbon in the environment?
What is meant by oceans being regarded as the "carbon sink"
Contains a lot of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and it stores calcium carbonate.
Other then Carbon Dioxide, what other forms is Carbon found in the atmosphere?
1. CH4 (Methane)
2. CO (Carbon Monoxide)
Where does all of the extra carbon come from? and what is the process that releases it?
Extra carbon comes from fossil fuels, which is made of detritus. Burning the fossil fuels releases it
Chemical Formula: Nitrogen
Chemical Formula: Nitrous Oxide
Chemical Formula: Ammonia
Chemical Formula: Nitrate
Chemical Formula: Nitrite
The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and is carried out by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Process that turns ammonia into ammonium .
The conversion of ammonia into nitrite or the conversion of ammonium intro nitrate.
In what forms is nitrogen readily taken up by autotrophs?
Ammonium and Nitrate Ions
How do heterotrophs get the nitrogen they need?
By eating autotrophs
What do organisms use nitrogen for? In what organic molecules is it essential?
Organisms use nitrogen to build amino acids. It is essential in proteins and nitrogenous bases
Organisms, especially animals, give off various forms of nitrogen rich wastes. What is the name of the process in which these wastes are converted back into ammonia?
The conversion of nitrogenous compounds, especially nitrates, back into atmospheric nitrogen
Nitrogen fixation and denitrification are carried out by what types of organisms?
How is nitrous oxide released into the environment?
"Fixing Nitrogen" has become a big human business. For what purpose are humans producing this nitrogen?
Two ways in which phosphorous in aquatic systems may be returned to terrestrial ecosystems
2. uplifting over geological time
What other important human use do phosphates serve besides the use of fertilizers?
3. Cell Membranes
What is contributing to the complexity of the Sulfur Cycle compared to other cycles?
The large number of oxidation states the element can assume
How is sulfur naturally released into the atmosphere?
Volcanic Eruptions and by Weathering
What human activities release sulfur into the atmosphere?
The burning of fossil fuels is the activity that humans release Sulfur into the atmosphere
An environmental concern surrounding the release of sulfur into the atmosphere
The element that is most limiting
When something accumulates in a single individual
When a concentration of a system increases as you move up on a food chain
Two components that are used to measure the diversity of an area:
1. Species richness
2. Species Evenness
The # of different species that are found
The relative proportion of each species
A moss that is found in marshes
What is another name for limestone and what cycle does this play a role in?
Dolomite, the carbon cycle
Three ways in which phosphate can be returned to terrestrial ecosystems?
Guano (bird poop), mining, and uplifting
Uptake of nutrients by plants
Where are nitrogen fixing bacteria often located and what form of nitrogen do they produce?
Legumes, NH3 (ammonia)
Which cycle lacks a chemical change throughout the cycle?
The Water Cycle
Which cycles contribute in some way shape or form, to acid rain?
Nitrogen cycle, sulfur cycle, carbon cycle, water cycle
ALL CYCLES BUT PHOSPHORUS
Which cycles are impacted by the burning of fossil fuels?
Water cycle, Sulfur cycle, Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle
What are major sinks of carbon in the lithosphere?
Fossil fuels, dolomite (calcium carbonate or limestone)
How is CO2 removed from the atmosphere?
Which cycles are important to the construction of proteins of living organisms?
Sulfur cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle, phosphorous cycle, carbon cycle
Combustion of fossil fuels of biomass is most similar to what biological process?
Conversion of animal waste into ammonia is known as what process?
In what forms is nitrogen most readily taken up by plants
Ammonia, ammonium, and nitrate
Line up all the steps on the water cycle starting from a cloud through transpiration
Cloud, precipitation, infiltration, percolation, plant transpiration
The process when the water sweeps down and dissolves various minerals plus organic matter in upper layers and carries them to the lower layers.
Mixture of the partially decomposed bodies of dead plants and animals
Physical and chemical processes in which solid rock exposed at earth's surface is changed to separate solid particles and dissolved material, which can then be moved to another place as sediment
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
Rate at which producers use photosynthesis to store energy minus the rate at which they use some of this stored energy through aerobic respiration. Measures how fast producers can provide the food needed by other organisms (consumers) in an ecosystem
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
The rate at which an ecosystem's producers convert solar energy into chemical energy as biomass.
The percent of usable energy transferred as biomass from one trophic level to the next
The dry weight of all organic matter contained in its organisms
All organisms that are the same number of energy transfers away from the original source of energy (for example sunlight) that enters an ecosystem. For example, all producers belong to the first trophic level, and all herbivores belong to the second trophic level in a food chain or food web.
Form of cellular respiration in which some decomposers get the energy they need through the breakdown of glucose (or other nutrients) in the absence of oxygen
Anaerobic Respiration/ Fermentation
Complex process that occurs in the cells of most living organisms, in which nutrient organic molecules such as glucose (C6H10O6) combine with oxygen (02) to produce carbon dioxide (C02), water (H20), and energy.
Are insects and other scavengers that feed on the wastes or dead bodies of other organisms.
Third and Higher Level Consumers
Carnivores that feed on other carnivores
Also known as carnivores, such as foxes and fish, feed on herbivores.
Also known as herbivores such as rabbits and zooplankton, eat producers.
Process in which certain organisms (mostly specialized bacteria) extract inorganic compounds from their environment and convert them into organic nutrient compounds without the presence of sunlight.
Limiting factor principle
Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population of species in an ecosystem, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance for the species.
Consist of biological components such as producers, consumers, and decomposers.
Consists of nonliving components such as water, air, nutrients, and solar energy.
Aquatic Life Zones
Marine and freshwater portions of the biosphere. Examples include freshwater life zones (such as lakes and streams) and ocean or marine life zones (such as estuaries, coastlines, coral reefs, and the deep ocean).
Terrestrial regions inhabited by certain types of life, especially vegetation. Examples include various types of deserts, grasslands, and forests.
Outer shell of the earth, composed of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle outside the asthenosphere; material found in the earth's plates.
Earth's liquid water (oceans, lakes, other bodies of surface water, and underground water), frozen water (polar ice caps, floating ice caps, and ice in soil, known as permafrost), and water vapor in the atmosphere.
2nd layer of the atmosphere, extending about 17048 kilometers (11-30 miles) above the earth's surface. It contains small amounts of gaseous ozone (03), which filters about 95% of the incoming harmful ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun.
Innermost layer of the atmosphere. It contains about 75% of the mass of earth's air and extends about 17 kilometers (11 miles) above sea level.
Zone of the earth where life is found. It consists of parts of the atmosphere (the troposphere), hydrosphere (mostly surface water and groundwater), and lithosphere (mostly soil and surface rocks and sediments on the bottoms of oceans and other bodies of water) where life is found
Populations of all species living and interacting in an area at a particular time.
Difference between production and productivity
Production is the total energy fixed by a plant through photosynthesis and Productivity is the rate of biomass production
3 factors that may affect the primary productivity of an ecosystem
1. Light intensity
4. Amount of Water
Mass of dried crops thats there now
How might the LAI (Lead Area Index) influence the rate of primary production
The size of the leaf can change the amount of light intensity the leaf intakes
2 ways in which water returns to the oceans from the land
1. groundwater movement
2. surface run-off
How do humans intervene in the WATER CYCLE?
1. Withdraw large amounts of freshwater
2. Contribute to climate change
3. Polluting surface and underground water
4. Clearing vegetation and eroding soils
Identify the main reservoir on earth
Identify the main reservoirs for fresh water
Polar Ice Caps, Glaciers
Important role of plants in cycling the water through ecosystems
Brings water from the ground, through the plants, and is released into the atmosphere
When nutrients fall to the bottom of the ocean
Biological Origin: Limestone
Sedimentation of dead sea shells get crushed together
Other word for Limestone
2 processes that release carbon into the atmosphere
They each release CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
2 geological "sinks" that can act as a source of Carbon
2. Oil and Gas
What would happen if there were no decomposers present in the Carbon Cycle?
The Carbon Cycle would stop because there would be no more carbon to recycle and release into the atmosphere.
Describe what effect human activity is having on the amount of carbon stored in "sinks"
Humans are pulling out the Carbon and burning Carbon at a fast pace
5 instances in the Nitrogen cycle where bacterial action is important
1. Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria---N2->NH3
2. Nitrifying Bacteria (Nitrosomonas)---NH3->NO2-
3. Nitrifying Bacteria (Nitrobacter)---NO2- _>NO3-
4. Denitrifying Bacteria---NO3-_>NO2- OR
5. Nitrogen Fixing Cyanobacteria---N2-->NH3
Identify the process that releases Nitrogen Gas into the atmosphere
Identify the form in which nitrogen is available to most plants
Animals get the nitrogen they need through
5 ways in which humans may intervene in the NITROGEN CYCLE
1. Adding gases that contribute to ACID RAIN
2. Adding nitrous oxide into the atmosphere through farming practices
3. Contaminating groundwater from nitrate ions in organic fertilizer
4. Releasing nitrogen into the troposphere through deforestation
2 instances in the phosphorus cycle where bacterial action is important
2. Phosphating Bacteria
2 types of molecules found in living organisms which include phosphorous as a part of their structure
3 forms of inorganic phosphate making up the geological reservoir
1. Rock Phosphate
2. Insoluble phosphates in bone deposits
3. Dissolved phosphates available to plants
Process that must occur in order to make rock phosphate available to plants again
2 ways in which Sulfur can enter the atmosphere from natural sources
1. Volcanic Eruptions
2 major roles of Sulfur in the biosphere
1. Component of Proteins
2. Determining the acidity of precipitation, surface water, and soil
Which cycle is the most complicated?
Which cycle has no atmospheric component?
What does Sulfur in the atmosphere do?
Sulfur in the atmosphere blocks sunlight, which cools the earth
Difference between detritivores and decomposers
Detritivores eat dead organic material (beetles, worms); and decomposers break down dead organic materials into their simplest molecular form (Fungi)
The hydrologic cycle is primarily driven by?
Solar Energy and Gravity
Does not increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
2 ways in which humans have interfered with the carbon cycle is?
Burning fossil fuels and removal of forests and brush
Ammonium ions are converted to nitrite ions and nitrate ions through the process of?
In which cycle is guano a component?
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