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35 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 3

These terms are matched to Myers 8th edition of Psychology chapter 3.
STUDY
PLAY
adaptation
An inherited characteristic that increases in a population because it provides a survival or reproductive advantage.
aggression
physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or harm someone.
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior.
Charles Darwin
renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
collectivism
sense of "we". priorities are given to a certain group. One's identity is defined accordingly
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
environment
refers to every nongenetic, or external, influence on our traits and behaviors.
evolutionary psychology
the study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
fraternal twins
develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperrn and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings.
gender
the biologically and socially influenced characteristic by which people define male and female.
gender identity
one's personal sense of being male or female.
gender role
a culturally prescribed set of behaviors for males and females.
gender schema theory
children acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.
gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role.
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; they are segments of the DNA molecules capable of synthesizing a protein.
genome
the complete instructions for making an organism - consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The ___________ of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
identical twins
develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two and therefore are genetically identical.
individualism
Giving priority to one's own goals over group and defining one's identity in terms of personal sttributes rather than group identification.
interaction
occurs when the effects of one factor (such as heredity) depends on another factor (such as environment).
memes
variations in ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from one person to another that cause rapid cultural mutations.
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
mutation
a process in which the genetic material of a person, a plant or an animal changes in structure when it is passed on to children, causing different phycical characteristics to develop.
natural selection
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations - those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
norms
understood social prescriptions, or rules, for accepted and expected behavior.
nucleotides.
biochemical units that make up DNA and genes.
personal space
personal space-the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
role.
a culturally prescribed set of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position.
social learning theory
people learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
temperament
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
testosterone
the principal male sex hormone. During prenatal development, it stimulates the development of the external male sex organs.
X Chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these chromosomes; males have one. One of these chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.