49 terms

Clin path lab exam #1

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When you get a urine sample what do you need to put in the comment section of the urine form
How it was obtained ex: free catch, cysto, etc
What is the max urine you can put in a 15ml centrifuge tube?
12ml
How long do you spin urine for?
5-6 mins
List 3 main components when performing a urine sample?
Physical properties, chemical properties, sediment
Name of the stain used for looking at urine sediment
Sedi-stain
Name 4 ways urine is collected
Cystocentesis, free catch, bladder expression, catheterization
Description of acanthocyte cell
Has rounded projections
Description of crenated cell
Has pointed projections
What RBC can be confused with a crenated cell?
Acanthocyte
Name 3 causes of obtaining crenated cells
Putting to much pressure on the slide when making the smear, waiting to long after blood collection to make the smear, improper drying technique
Correctly spell heartworm and know what it looks like
Dirofilaria immitis
Anisocytosis
Variation in cell size
Poikilocytosis
Variation in shape of rbc
Target cells
Central stained area with a ring of pallor toward the edge. Dark stained center surrounded by clear area surrounded by a ring of stained cytoplasm
Howell jolly bodies
Purple small round nuclear fragment. Remnant of nuclear material after the nucleus has been extruded
Heinz bodies
Particles of percipitated Hb with single round granules projecting from the rbc. Small refractile inclusions as well.
What stain do we use to better stain Heinz bodies?
New methylene blue
Crenated RBC
Irregular margins and prickly points coming off the cell wall
Acanthocytes
Rbc rounded prjections
Rouleaux formation
Rbc's arranged in rows or stacks
Hypochromasia
Large area of central pallor decrease Hb concentration within the cell
Polychromasia
Variation of color lack of full amount of Hb and presence of rna immature vs mature rbc
What is the primary cause of polychromasia on a smear?
Improper staining technique or the amount of hemoglobin in the cell
What stain is used for staining blood smears?
Diff-quick
Know the proper procedure for staining
Consistency dipping the slide into each stain 8-10 times
Reticulocyte
Non-nucleated immature rbc
What disease state is seen with reticulocytes?
Seen with anemia
What stain do we use for retics?
New methylene blue stain is used at a 1:1 (one drop of stain to one drop of blood)
What squares on a hemocytometer do you count for RBC's?
The 4 small corner squares and the small center square of the large central square
What squares on a hemocytometer do you count for WBC?
All 9 large squares
What squares on a hemocytometer do you count for platelet?
All 25 small squares in the large central square
How ofter should stain be changed for blood morph and why?
Changed every 1-2 months depending on use to decrease contamination, there is an increase in refractive particles and it loses its pH and becomes less reactive
What is the name of the area between the plasma and the packed rbc on a micro-hematocrit tube?
Buffy coat
Should the buffy coat be included when determining the PCV?
No
What units are used for a PCV?
%
How many capillary tubes should be made before centrifuging the sample why?
2, in case one breaks to balance the centrifuge and to compare results of the two tubes
TP units
...
Making a blood smear what must be done to the slides before and why?
Slides must be cleancleaned to free it from debris, oil, dust etc.
What two things be obtained from a refractometer?
SG and TP
Making a blood smear what must be done to the slides before and why?
Slides must be cleancleaned to free it from debris, oil, dust etc.
What two things be obtained from a refractometer?
SG and TP
Microcytes
Smaller then normal RBC
Macrocytes
Larger then normal RBC
Spherocytes
Completely round are not biconcaved have little central pallor
WBC in urine appearance/ characteristic
Appear dull gray/ greenish-yellow in color. Can see granules/ nucleus
RBC in urine appearance/ characteristic
Normal, pale, yellowish appearance. Are smooth bi-concave disks
Calcium oxalate in urine characteristics and pH
Acidic urine, envelope shape
Triple phosphate (struvite) in urine characteristics and pH
Alkaline urine, coffin lid
What is used to do a manual count of WBC, RBC and platelets?
Hemocytometer
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