100 terms

american history final

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a group of reform movements in the late 1800's
what is the progressive movement?
urban problems, such as the plight of workers, poor sanitation, and corrupt political machines
what were the goals of the progressive movement?
industrial evolution, expansion, growth of cooperation, political machines
what were the main areas of reform during the progressive movement?
direct primary, 17th amendment, secret ballot, initiative, referendum
what did the progressives accomplish?
muckrakers
a term coined for journalist who stirs up the mud some people had and exposed corruption and problems of society
triangle shirtwaist fire
a turning point for the reform. With the efforts of Schneiderman and others, New York State passed the toughest fire-safety laws in the nation after a fire started in a factory and killed the workers
initiative
anyone who can purpose legislation
referendum
individuals could vote on laws
recall
allows voters to remove an elected official from office
prohibition, womens Christian temperance union
WCTU
outlawed alcohol sells
18th amendment
square deal
Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 campaign slogan, expressed his belief that the needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced and called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions
trust buster
northern securities was a railroad monopoly in the north. Teddy prosecutes northern securities because of monopoly laws. Teddy takes 30 other big trust to court and said he would break up the big trust for the help of the US.
Newland's Reclamation Act
a collation of conservation media commentators, think tanks, and grassroots Christian groups; many supported Ronald Reagan
john muir
naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park
gifford pinchot
first head of the united states forest service
law that allowed Congress to levy taxes based on an individual's income
16th amendment
formed by taft, enforce labor laws and increasing national forest reserves
what was the department of labor?
resulted in high tariff's, signed by Taft
what was the Payne-Aldrich Tariff?
platform that called for tariff reductions, bank reforms, and stronger antitrust legislation, made by Wilson. tried to stop monopolies. federal trade commission also created
what was the New Freedom and what did it do?
women got the right to vote
19th amendment
pure food and drug act
law that forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food and patent medicine containing harmful ingredients, and required that containers of food and medicines carry ingredient labels
hull house
used to educate immigrants
teddy roosevelt
won election in 1901
ida tarbell
investigative journalist, she wrote a report condemning the corrupt business practices of John D. Rockefeller in McClure's magazine. These articles became the basis for her book, The History of the Standard Oil Company
upton sinclair
wrote a famous book that prompted a huge deferral probe and the passage of the meat inspection act of 1906
lincoln steffens
muckraker and managing editor of McClure's magazine; he exposed government corruption in his 1904 book, The Shame of the Cities
robert m. lafollette
progressive American politician, he was active in local Wisconsin issues and challenged party bosses. As governor, he began the reform program called the Wisconsin Idea to make state government more professional
susan b. anothony
American social reformer, she was active in the temperance, abolitionist, and women's suffrage movements and was co-organizer and president of the National Woman Suffrage Association
william taft
won the election in 1909
woodrow wilson
won the election in 1913
carry nation
temperance advocate, she took extreme measures to further her cause by entering saloons in her native state of Kansas and smashing bottles of alcohol with a hatchet.
imperialism
the practice of extending a nation's power by gaining territories for a colonial empire
economic interest, military needs, ideology, and the scramble for territory, national prestige
what are the motives of imperialism
Hawaii's queen wanted to take control back to the Native Hawaiians, rich sugar planters took over Hawaii with a fake rebellion
how did we acquire Hawaii?
John Hay
secretary of state that proposed the open door policy in 1899
Open door policy
a policy established by the United States in 1899 to promote equal access for all nations to trade in China
we wanted to help Cuba when they rebelled, yellow jounalism, DeLome letter, USS maine blown-up, Spanish not granting Cuba independence
What were the causes of the Spanish-American war
rough riders
a cavalry regiment organized by Theodore Roosevelt; consisted of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, miners, and Native Americans
San Juan Hill
battle in Spanish-American War in which 8,000 U.S. soldiers fought to seize control over San Juan Hill
Roosevelt's naval power
what is the big stick policy
Roosevelt corollary
a change to the Monroe Doctrine, saying that the U.S. could intervene in the international affairs of Latin American nations. Roosevelt issued this because in 1904 the Dominican Republic was unable to repay its European lenders. Fearing that the Europeans would use force to collect the debts, President Roosevelt decided to take a tough policy stand
France tried to build a canal but failed so they sell their property and equipment to us
how did we acquire Panama?
Giving us the right to intervene in Cubans affairs
what did the Platt amendment do?
came from under Taft, investments and economic control
what was the dollar diplamcy?
tampico incident
What led to the battle of veracruz?
Liluokalani
queen of the Hawaiian islands; she opposed annexation by the United States but lose power in a U.S. supported revolt, which led to the installation of a new government in Hawaii
George Dewey
commander of the U.S. navy's asiastic quadron; he led the attack in the pacific during the Spanish-American war
Emilio Aguinaldo
self-proclaimed President of the new Philippine Republic in 1899; he fought for Filipino independence from the United States
Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary, he led the revolt against Portrio Diaz in the south of Mexico during the Mexican Revolution
Poncho Villa
Mexican bandit and revolutionary leader; he led revolts against Carranza and Huerta. He was pursued by the US but evaded General Pershing
nationalism, imperialism, system of alliances, materialism, technology, militarism, etc.
what caused WWI?
April of 1917
When did the U.S. enter WWI?
Germany's use of unrestricted submarine warefare
Why did the U.S. finally enter WWI?
allies; British and French
what side did we join in WWI?
France, American, Britian
who were the allied powers?
Germany, Austria, Hungry
who were the centeral powers?
machine guns, trenches, airplanes, barbed wire, flamethrowers, larger cannons, tanks, gas, U-boats
what are the changes in warfare during WWI?
Schlieffen plan
Germany's plan to take out France so it can be a one on one fight between Russia and the US. Didn't work, they ran out of supplies and arrived exhausted
first battle of the marne
Germans invaded France, within a month they were 25 miles from Paris. The French launched a daring counterattack along the Marne River east of Paris on September 7, 1914. 2 million men fought along a battle-front that stretched 125 miles. After five days and 250,000 lives lost, the French had rallied and pushed the Germans back some 40 miles. Despite the cost of the French counterattack, it helped the Allies by giving Russia more time to mobilize for war. Ended in a standoff.
convoy system
a bunch of ships together to escort you and protect you from submarines
could not fight in the war. worked as nurses, typists, secretaries, telephone operators, translators
women in the war effort
march 11, 1918
when was the influenze epidemic?
killed nearly 200,000 Americans
how bad was the influenza epidemic
represented the US
what was Wilson's role at versailles?
Trying to end the causes of war fair, His plan for peace
what was Wilson's 14 points?
First four called for open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military arms
The fifth point proposed a fair system to resolve disputes over colonies
Next 8 dealt directly with self-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status
14th called for establishment of the League of nations
name Wilson's 14 points?
treaty of versailles
forced Germany to disarm its military forces. It required Germany to pay the Allies reparations—payments for damages and expenses caused by the war. This amount far exceeded what the German government could actually afford to pay. The Allies also demanded that Germany accept sole responsibility for starting the war. The treaty did include some of Wilson's Fourteen Points. It would establish a League of Nations.
committee of Public Information
George Creel launched campaigns propaganda
wilson
president, wanted peace
john j. pershing
our top General in the war
alvin york
captured 132 Germans, making him the most famous hero of the war
henry cabot lodge
Republican, isolationist, big into secretary of state foreign affairs
communism
what were problems in u.s. post war recovery?
widespread fear of communism
what was the red scare?
an attack on suspected radicals
what were palmer raids?
A. Mitchell Palmer
who led the Palmer raids?
return to normalcy
Warren Harding wanted this, everything to return to how it was before the war
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
court case in massachusette's illustrated the nation's struggle with nativist and anti-radical feelings. Arrested for armed robbery and murder, they were Italian immigrants and proclaimed they were anarchists. Evidence against them was weak, they were convicted and sentenced to death.
Installment buying
paying for an item over a period of time with a series of small payments
teapot dome
Albert Fall was accepting bribes for oil companies to go on federal reserved land that we are trying to keep reserved for prestige reasons
kellogg-braind pact
a treaty signed in 1928 that rejected war as a means to solving problems between countries
henry ford
American business leader; he revolutionized factory production through use of the assembly line and popularized the affordable automobile
warren harding
Twenty-ninth president of the United States; his policies favored business, but his administration was known for scandals.
calvin coolidge
Thirtieth president of the United States; he became president upon the death of President Warren G. Harding. He was known for his honesty and his pro-business policies.
flapper
a young woman in the 1920s who wore her hair bobbed, wore makeup, dressed in flashy, skimpy clothes, and lived a life of independence and freedom
fundamentalism
a belief in the literal interpretation of a particular religion's doctrine or holy books
Amelia earhart
American pilot; she was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean and set many speed and distance records. She disappeared over the Pacific Ocean in 1937
charles lindberg
American pilot; he became the first person to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean nonstop in 1927. He was a hero to millions of Americans.
speakeasy
illegal bars where alcohol was served during Prohibition
fight to get alcohol banned. caused more bootleggers, gangsters, etc to open
prohibition
took place in Dayton, Tennessee. Scope was a teacher that taught evolution even though he was told not to. Clarence Darrow represented Scopes. William Jennings Bryan led the presecution
scopes trial
harlem renissance
a blossoming of African American art and literature that began in the 1920s
great migration
the major relocation of African Americans to northern cities from 1910 and into the 1920s
f. scott fitzgerald
American writer famous for his novels and stories, such as The Great Gatsby, capturing the mood of the 1920s. He gave the decade the nickname the "Jazz Age."
zora neale houston
African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance
langston hughes
African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
w.e.b. dubois
A key figure in the rise of Harlem. a leading voice in the African American community for many years. In 1909 he helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People—the NAACP—in New York City.
worked to end discrimination and mistreatment of African Americans throughout the United States
what did the NAACP do?
marcus garvey
African American leader who promoted self-reliance for African Americans; he started the Universal Negro Improvement Society (UNIA), which urged African Americans to take pride in their heritage