Pharmacology, Module 4: ENT Drugs
Terms in this set (51)
Ears, nose and throat (ENT) drugs are used to treat disorders of the _____ and _____.
ears, upper respiratory passages
Decongestants, antihistamines, antitussive and expectorants, corticosteroids and antibiotics are all _____.
Epinephrine-like (decongestants) drugs not only act on β receptors, but also act as _____ to reduce upper airway congestion.
Decongestants can be spray or oral medication and are often combined with _____ in many cold remedies.
_____ and _____ are topical nasal spray decongestants
Neo-Synephrine (phenylephrine), Afrin (oxymetazoline)
Many OTC decongestants use to contain ______ and ______, but now contain _____.
ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, pheynlephrine
Antihistamines block _____ receptors on cells in the nose and throat, thus preventing histamine from binding and causing an allergic effect.
Histamine is released from _____.
_____ are used in the treatment of hay fever, but have no proven benefits in treating the etiology of the common cold, they only treat the symptoms.
First generation α-histmamines tended to cause _____, a side effect we now use to our advantage in OTC sleep preperations.
_____ and _____ are 1st generation antihistamines.
Bendaryl (diphenhydramine), Phenergan (promethazine)
_____ is the only 2nd generation antihistamine used today.
Newer 3rd generation antihistamines don't have the ____ properties of 1st generation drugs and are without the _____ of the 2nd generation drugs.
_____ and _____ are 3rd generation antihistamines.
Allegra (fexofenadine), Zyrtec (cetirizine)
_____ was approved in July 1996.
_____ are inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids) produced int he AA pathway and are involved with asthma and allergies.
_____ drugs have been approved only for the treatment to astham and sever hay fever not responding to antihistamine.
leukotriene rc blocker (Singulair)
_____ is a leukotriene rc blocker and is part of the "-leukast" family of drugs.
_____ coat mast cells and prevent the release of their histamine granules (which precipitate the allergic reaction).
mast cell stabilizers
_____ was the first mast cell stabilizer.
Mast cell stabilizers are effective for _____ only.
prophylaxis (prevent spreading)
Local or topical applications of corticosteroids are much _____ than systemic administration.
Corticosteroid nasal sprays are used in the _____ to treat airway inflammation.
_____ and _____ are both corticosteroid nasal sprays
Flonase (fluticasone), Nasacort AQ (triamcinolone)
_____ was the first OTC corticosteroid nasal spray, 2014.
Nasacort Allergy 24HR
oral antibiotics for ENT:
topical antibiotics for ENT:
-Triple Antibiotic Ointment
Neosporin = Triple Antibiotic Ointment =
neomycin + polymyxin B + bacitracin
Neosporin and Triple Antibiotic Ointment are used only topically because of the _____.
Antibiotic solutions and suspensions in combinataion with _____ agent are used for infections in the external ear canal.
_____ is a otic solution of a flouroquinolone antibiotic.
Floxin Otic (ofloxacin)
_____ are caused by viruses (rhino viruses) and infect the nose and throat.
_____ is therapy directed at the symptolms of an illness, not the underlying cause of the disease.
_____ infections often complicate the primary viral infection, usually with worsening symptoms after a short period of recovery.
secondary bacterial infection
_____, _____ and _____ are all viral infections of the upper respiratory tract that we have specific therapy.
influenze, RSV, herpetic cold sores
_____ drugs treat herpetic cold sores.
Relenza, Tamiflu and IIV4 treat _____.
Antifungal drugs such as _____, _____ and _____ are used as a "swish and swallow" for oral thrush infections.
miconazole, clotrimazole, nystatin
_____ suppress coughing by working on the cough center in the brain stem or by anesthetizing the stretch receptors in the respiratory tract.
Most coughs caused by viral URIs are more of a nuisance and can be suppressed without regard to the ______.
_____ cough suppressants are the best antitussive drugs.
Narcotics such as _____, _____ and _____ are classic examples of narcotic cough suppressants.
codeine, morphine, hydrocodone
_____ is more widely used than narcotic antitussives because it is not an pure opiod (μ-receptor agonist)
dexromethorphan (DM or DXM)
DM (dexromethorphan) is used in many medications and highly favored ingredient of teen highs, _____ is becoming a problem.
Some coughs should not be _____, like in the case of pneumonias.
Expectorants reduce the thickness of _____ so that patients can more easily cough it up.
_____ is derived from the guaiac tree and is the active ingredient in expectorants. It is very popular component of many OTC cough and cold (i.e. Robitussin)
_____ is a disorder with equilibrium, a problem of the inner ear, and most often is caused by a temporary viral infection.
Ear wax accumulations and impactions can be treated with _____ to soften ear wax impactions.
Cerumenex Ear Drops (hydrogen peroxide)
_____ is an antihistamine that is used to treat motion sickness.
_____ is an anticholinergic drug used to treat motion sickness.
scopolamine (Transderm Scop)
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