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Module #2 Test Study Guide

Study guide for test # 2 of the S/R Bio class. Terms/Answers taken straight from textbook, this time. ;)
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Pathogen
An organism that causes disease
Saprophyte
An organism that feeds on dead matter
Parasite
An organism that feeds on a living host
Aerobic Organism
An organism that requires oxygen
Anaerobic Organism
An organism that does not require oxygen
Steady State
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born
Exponential Growth
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population
Logistic Growth
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources
Conjugation
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer
Plasmid
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code
Transformation
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell
Transduction
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
Endospore
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers
Strains
Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits
Plasma Membrane
The surface underneath the bacterium's cell wall
Cytoplasm
A semifluid substance inside the plasma membrane
Fimbriae
Fibrous bristles that are typically used for grasping surfaces or other bacteria
Cell Wall
The surface inside the cell wall; The surface that holds the contents of the bacterium together, regulates the amount of water that the bacterium can absorb, and holds the cell into one of three basic shapes
Capsule
An outer surface that surrounds the cell wall; Only some bacteria have it
Flagellum
Part of bacteria that allows it to move from one place to another
Ribosomes
Non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
What is the most popular means by which bacteria obtain food?
Relying on dead organisms for food
If a bacterium in parasitic, is it heterotrophic or autotrophic?
Heterotrophic
List the basic steps in asexual reproduction among bacteria.
DNA loop is attached to a point on the membrane, the DNA is copied, the cell elongates, new cell wall material and plasma membrane begin to grow, the bacteria separates into two different bacterium.
A sample of food is dehydrated, which kills all of the bacteria. However, in a few days, bacteria-free water is added to the food in a bacteria-free environment. Nevertheless, microscopic investigations indicate that bacteria are in the food. How did the bacteria get there?
Through asexual reproduction of living bacterium.
What kind of growth does a population of bacteria experience when just a few of them are placed in an environment rich with resources?
Exponential growth.
A population of bacteria experiences logistic growth. What can you say about its resources of their environment?
The resources are limited in the environment