31 terms

Blemishes and Unsoundness

Bog Spavin
It is a soft swelling on the front of the hock, caused by a buildup of synovial fluid from the joint. This indicates that the hock has been under extra stress, but no enough to make him lame. A bog spavin is considered a blemish, but should be taken as a warning sign. Bog spavins are often seen on horses with straight hocks, or when horses with weak hock conformation do work that is hard for their hocks.
Bone Spavin
Bone spavin is arthritis in the small bones of the hock, caused by too much stress or concussion. If the calcium deposits cause the bones to fuse together, the horse may recover fully; if not, he may be permanently lame. Bone spavin appears as a hard swelling low on the inner hock. Bone spavin is more common in horses that put extra strain on their hocks. Cow hocks, bowed hocks and very straight hocks are more prone to develop bone spavins.
Bowed Tendon
A tendon stretched too far and torn, resulting in a thickening where scar tissue forms. May be high or low on the tendon, causing severe lameness. The horse may recover, but the tendon will never regain full strength. Calf knees, long sloping pasterns, long toes and heels, and weak "tied-in" tendons put more strain on the tendons and may contribute to bowed tendons. However, any horse can bow a tendon through an accident or fall.
Bucked Shin
Bucked shins are an inflammation of the bone covering on the front of the cannon bone, usually in the front legs. The shin becomes very hot and sore, and the horse is lame. It is usually seen in young horses worked too hard. The lameness subsides with rest and treatment.
Capped Elbow
Inflammation due to pressure or bruising over a long period of time, resulting in a swelling and blemish which is often permanent, but rarely causes lameness. A capped elbow is usually caused by the heel of the horses's shoe pressing against the elbow while lying down.
Capped Hock
Inflammation due to pressure or bruising over a long period of time, resulting in a swelling and blemish which is often permanent, but rarely causes lameness. A capped hock may be caused by kicking a solid object, or lying on a hard floor with insufficient bedding.
Carpitis is an inflammation of the knee, caused by stress or trauma. Often seen in racehorses or horses with calf knees. The knee becomes hot, tender and swollen, and the horse may move his leg in a sideways arc. The lameness may subside with rest and treatment, or require surgery.
A sprain of the plantar ligament running down the back of the hock, caused by extra strain on the hock, resulting in a thickening at the lower end of the hock joint. It usually causes lameness. Curbs are often associated with sick hocks or horses that "stand under" in the hind legs.
High Ringbone
Arthritis in the joint between the two pastern bones. Eventually the bones may fuse or grow together, and the horse may become sound, but high ringbone has the danger of developing into low ring bone which is more serious.
Low Ringbone
Low ring one occurs between the End of the pastern bone and the coffin bone, inside the hoof. This type of ring bone is usually more serious, and the horse becomes permanently lame. Too much concussion contributes to ringbone: it is more common in horses with upright pasterns.
Non-Articular Ringbone
A calcium deposit, or exostosis, in the pastern area, located away from the joints. This is the least serious type of ringbone and the horse may be sound after a period of rest. Caused by stress and concussion.
Arthritis in the fetlock joint, resulting in a series of calcium deposits which give the fetlock an enlarged, square appearance. The joint will be hot, swollen and inflamed, and the horse will be very lame. May be cured with rest and treatment.
The collateral cartilages of the coffin bone, which form the bulbs of the heel, gradually calcify and turn to bone. This usually is not considered an unsoundness unless the sidetones become very large or get broken, causing lameness. Most common in large, heavy horses with big feet, especially if they have straight pasterns that cause more concussion.
Calcification of the ligament connecting the splint and cannon bones, usually caused by overwork of young horses. A splint will appear as a hard lump on the inner leg, most commonly the forelegs. If allowed to heal completely, the horse will be sound but the lump will remain as a blemish.
A thoroughpin is usually caused by stress or strain on a weak hock, especially sickle hocks. It is a soft, cool swelling in ht supper part of the hock, caused by an excess of tendon sheath fluid. Like a bog spavin, a thoroughpin is considered a blemish and usually does not cause lameness.
Windpuffs (Windgalls)
A soft, cool swelling located just above the fetlock joint, caused by extra joint fluid. Windpuffs are considered a blemish and rarely cause lameness, but indicate that the horse's joints have been under a recent stress.
Include abnormalities that do not affect serviceability, such as wire cuts, rope burns, nail punctures, show boils, or capped hocks
Include more serious abnormalities that affect serviceability.
Dishing or Paddling
Swinging the forefeet inward when moving, especially at the trot. Often caused by heavy shoeing, which interferes with the horse's normal action.
Brushing or Interfering
Refers to the interference of the inner portions of a hoof with the opposite leg so as to cause abrasions, cuts and other injuries.
When a horse's hind hoof grabs the front heel; heels and shoes can be protected by adding bell boots.
When a horse's hind hoof strikes the sole of its front hoof.
(Front toes turned out, heels turned in). Can be helped or corrected by trimming the outer half of the foot.
Pigeon Toe
(Fron toes turned in, heels turned out, opposite of splay-foot). Can be helped or corrected by trimming the inner half of the foot more than the outer half.
Quarter Crack
(A vertical crack on the side of the hoof). Usually can be corrected if the hoof is kept moist and the toes shortened.
Cocked Ankles
(Standing bent forward on the fetlocks, usually hind fetlocks). Can be helped or corrected by lowering the heels. Cocked ankles will not occur if foals are allowed to get ample exercise and are not overfed, and the foal's heels are kept trimmed so that there is plenty of frog pressure.
Contracted Heels
(Close at heels). Can be spread apart if the heels are lowered and the frog allowed to carry more of the animal's weight.
Parrot Mouth
Occurs when a horse places one leg in front of ht either, as if he were walking on a tightrope. It is caused by base narrow conformation and may led to interfering or stumbling. Corrective shoes may help, but the horse would need boots to protect his legs.
A tear in the skin with jagged/rough edges on the sides of the wound, may require stitches.
A wound caused by a very sharp object, sides of the wound are cleanly cut (no jagged edges to the wound); may require stitches.