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EXS 144: Aerobics Midterm
Terms in this set (81)
basis for the maintenance of wellness
Body weight training
Exercises that incorporate the body's own weight as resistance. (ex. squats, lunges, push-ups) With no equipment required, this type of training is affordable, portable, and accessible.
HIIT (high intensity interval training)
Alternating bursts of energy with fixed rest periods or lower-intensity exercises. This is popular due to fast results.
Races that incorporate obstacle type elements, specific clothing, color runs etc.
"Mash up" classes
Combining class formats to add variety and maximize effectiveness. Some examples are CY-YO (cycling and yoga), Airobics (aerobic classes on a trampoline), Piloxing (pilates and boxing)
Workplace Health Incentives
In light of rising healthcare costs, more employees are offering health and fitness incentives to employees. Some benefits include on-site gyms or rewards for healthy behaviors.
Women with Weights
Women no longer fear "bulking up" from lifting heavy weights.
Ability to do work.
Also called the Immediate Energy System. The quickest way to resynthesize ATP. Fuels short term and intense activities lasting about 10 seconds in duration. This system is anaerobic.
Predominately used for moderately high intensity exercise lasting 30 sec. to 2 min. Carbohydrates are broken down to aid in the resynthesization of ATP. This is an anaerobic system.
This is the most complex of the 3 energy systems, and it is dependent on oxygen. This system uses fats as the major fuel source to resynthesize ATP. It is used for activities that are low to moderate in intensity and long in duration (over 3 min.).
Rhythmic. Uses major muscle groups. Maintained at a proper intensity for a continuous amount of time.
1) maintain a healthy body weight
2) Increase stamina
3) strengthen immune system
4) reduce health risks
5) manage chronic health conditions
6) strengthen your heart
7) keep arteries clear
8) improve your mood
9) stay active and independent as you age
10) live longer
Benefits of Aerobic Exercise
Four important characteristics of exercise
Maximum Heart Rate Formula
Target Heart Rate
The range in which an individual needs to work for cardiorespiratory training to take place. MHR x % intensity
Resting Heart Rate
The number of times the heart beats per minute at rest.
Take RHR into account. (MHR - RHR) x % intensity desired + RHR
Rating of perceived exertion
A way to measure intensity in which individuals pay attention to the way they feel and assign a number between 0 -10.
The participant should be able to get out 3-5 words per breath. This is a measure of ventilator threshold (increasing intensity decreases ability to speak comfortably).
How many bones are in the adult human skeleton?
1) flexion: Decreasing a joint angle
2) extension: Increasing a joint angle
3) abduction: Movement away from the middle of the body
4) adduction: Movement toward the middle of the body
four joint actions
1) Slow twitch- Suited for endurance activities and are slow to fatigue
2) Fast twitch- Suited for short bursts of speed and power and are quick to fatigue.
Genetic makeup determines it.
tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens
shortening of muscle fibers
lengthening of muscle fibers
force is produced with no joint movement and no change in muscle length
Composed of 33 vertebrae in 5 sections
1) cervical- 7
2) thoracic- 12
3) lumbar- 5
4) sacral- 5
5) coccygal- 2-4
Right side of the heart
receives deoxygenated blood and pumps it to the lungs
Left side of the heart
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body
The two upper chambers of the heart (blood receiving)
The two lower chambers of the heart (blood dispensing)
1) Increased heart rate
2) Increased stroke volume
3) Increased cardiac output
4) Redirection of blood flow to the muscles
5) Increased oxygen extraction from blood
6) Increased intake of air
7) Increase in respiratory rate
How does the cardiopulmonary system meet the demands of exercise?
The ability to perform moderate to low level work for an extended period of time.
The ability to generate the most force possible within a short amount of time.
The ability to generate maximal force regardless of time.
Strength developed outside of a sport or application context
Strength developed or transferred to a sport or application context.
The variation of certain training factors will lead to greater gains in training. This done to prevent adaptation. The body is shocked when presented with a new training stimulus, forcing it to respond/ change.
Also known as jump training. A form of training that uses fast eccentric contractions followed by concentric contractions. The muscle is "loaded" and the stored energy is immediately released. This form of training is used primarily by athletes and is designed to increase muscular power and explosiveness.
The ability to move a joint through a wide range without strain
The capacity to move a joint through it full range of motion.
Moving through full ROM at varying speeds and forces.
1) Reduces muscle tension
2) Improves posture and coordination
3) Counters stiffness
4) Enhances performace
Benefits of flexibility
1) Genetic and bony connective tissue structure
2) Tight or loose ligaments
3) Stress and muscular tension
4) Injury, pregnancy, and age
Factors that influence flexibility
connective tissue, attaches muscle to bone (semi-elastic)
connective tissue, attaches bone to bone (non-elastic)
High force, short duration. Relies of speed and body weight to stretch the muscle
Low force, long duration. Most popular form of stretching.
A form of static stretching. Originated from physical therapy and generally requires a partner. Alternating series of muscle contraction and relaxation.
The foundation of all other fitness components (without it we couldn't exercise without injury). Composed of three main elements.
1. Balance control 2. timing control 3. muscular control
Ability to adjust the center of gravity effectively to any base, stationary or moving.
Setting and following the rhythm of a motion.
The ability to relax and keep muscles un-contracted if they are not needed for execution of a movement.
A unit of energy that food supplies to your body.
Substances in food on which the body depends for proper functioning.
6 classes of nutrition
The largest single component of the body.
1) Acts as a transport medium for nutrients
2) Aids in digestion and elimination
3) Maintains body temperature
Functions of water
Provide much of the energy needed for physical activity and organ function. There are 4 calories per gram.
1) The sole energy supply for the brain
2) Maintains functioning nerve tissue
3) Needed for fat metabolism
Functions of carbohydrates
quick source of energy (glucose, fructose)
starches, longer lasting source of energy
an ingestible type of complex carbohydrate found in fruits, vegetables, and grains
The second most abundant substance in cells. Found most frequently in animal sources. There are 4 calories per gram of protein.
1) Synthesis of enzymes, hormones, and tissue
2) Maintenance and repair of tissue
3) Source of energy (although inefficient) when inefficient carbohydrates and fats are consumed
functions of proteins
The major stored form of energy in the body. There are 9 calories per gram.
1) Transports fat soluble vitamins
2) Forms the major materials of cell membranes
3) Provides a protective covering for internal organs
4) Provides an emergency energy source during times of lowered food intake
5) Insulates the body against cold temperatures
Functions of fat
Contribute to elevated blood cholesterol (butter, poultry skin)
Can help lower blood cholesterol levels, including "good" (salad dressing, mayo, omega 3's- fatty fish)
Heart healthy types of fat that can decrease "bad" cholesterol levels without lowering good levels (olive oil, peanuts, avocados)
Trans fatty acids
Man-made preservatives that cause an increase in "bad" cholesterol levels (crackers, cookies)
Non-caloric, organic compounds needed in small quantities.
Fat soluble vitamins
Remain stored in the body and are not eliminated
Water soluble vitamins
Eliminated in excess
functions of vitamins
Inorganic compounds that are best absorbed through natural food sources (calcium, magnesium)
1) Regulates activity of many enzymes
2) Maintains acid base balance of enzymes
3) Structural constituents of body tissue
functions of minerals
One pound of body weight =
burn off more than you put in
Simple weight loss formula
Natural hormonal and neurological regulators
Many factors, other than overeating, can contribute to being overweight
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