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an animals diet must satisfy what 3 nutritional needs?
organic building blocks
organic molecules that have diverse functions and are required in very small amounts by the body
inorganic nutrients such as iron and sulfur that are usually required in very small amounts.
3 main stages of food processing
ingestion-act of feeding or eating
elimination-excretion of unused material
digestive compartment with just a single opening that functions to both digest and distribute nutrients throughout the body
4 main feeding mechanisms in animals
suspension/filter feeders (oysters/humpback whale)
substrate feeders (leaf miner)
fluid feeders (mosquito)
bulk feeders (humans)
alternating waves of contraction and relaxation that move food through the alimentary canal
how does HCl convert pepsinogen to active pepsin?
by clipping off a small portion of the molecule and exposing its active site
first 25 centimeters of the small intestine where chime mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and intestinal gland cells
mixture of substances made by the liver that digest fats and other lipids in the small intestine
water soluble globules coated with phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins that circulate in the blood
1.5 meter long portion of one arm of the T shape which leads to the rectum and anus. major function is to recover water from the lumen if additional water is needed by the body somewhere
herbivorous bird with an esophageal pouch that houses microorganisms that break down cellulose
deer, sheep, cattle, that have highly evolved mutualistic adaptations with multiple microorganisms
branch of the nervous system dedicated to the digestive organs which regulates events as well as peristalsis in the small and large intestine
endocrine system plays critical role in digestion by doing what?
secreting the right proteins/enzymes at the right place and time
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