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58 terms

animal nutrition

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nutrition
food being taken in, broken down and absorbed
herbivores
eat mainly plants and algae
carnivores
eat mainly other animals
omnivores
eat both animals and plants/algae
an animals diet must satisfy what 3 nutritional needs?
chemical energy
organic building blocks
essential nutrients
essential nutrients
materials that an animals cells require but cannot synthesize
4 classes of essential nutrients
amino acids
fatty acids
vitamins
minerals
vitamins
organic molecules that have diverse functions and are required in very small amounts by the body
minerals
inorganic nutrients such as iron and sulfur that are usually required in very small amounts.
malnutrition
condition that results from a diet that lacks one or more essential nutrients
insufficient intake of essential nutrients can cause
deformities
disease
death
under-nutrition
diet that fails to provide adequate sources of chemical energy
epidemiology
study of human health and disease
3 main stages of food processing
ingestion-act of feeding or eating
digestion-food processing
elimination-excretion of unused material
absorption
the take up of small molecules by an animals cells
food vacuoles
cellular organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down food
gastrovascular cavity
digestive compartment with just a single opening that functions to both digest and distribute nutrients throughout the body
4 main feeding mechanisms in animals
suspension/filter feeders (oysters/humpback whale)
substrate feeders (leaf miner)
fluid feeders (mosquito)
bulk feeders (humans)
peristalsis
alternating waves of contraction and relaxation that move food through the alimentary canal
sphincters
ring-like valves at some junctions between compartments of the digestive system
oral cavity
mouth or initial location of food intake
salivary glands
produce fluid/saliva that helps food move along the digestive system
amylase
enzyme found in saliva that hydrolyzes starch
mucus
a viscous mixture of water, salts, cells, and glycoproteins called mucins
bolus
ball of chewed food
pharynx/throat cavity opens what 2 passages?
esophagus
trachea (windpipe)
esophagus
connects the throat to the stomach
epiglottis
flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when food passes by enroute to the stomach
larynx
upper part of the respiratory tract
stomach
located just below the diaphragm, stores food and begins digestion of proteins
gastric juice
digestive fluid of the stomach that consists of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
chyme
mixture of ingested food and digestive juice
protease
protein digesting enzyme
pepsin
protease of gastric juice
pepsinogen
inactive form of pepsin
how does HCl convert pepsinogen to active pepsin?
by clipping off a small portion of the molecule and exposing its active site
duodenum
first 25 centimeters of the small intestine where chime mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and intestinal gland cells
pancreas
important organ that excretes digestive juices and insulin
bile
mixture of substances made by the liver that digest fats and other lipids in the small intestine
gallbladder
organ where bile is concentrated and stored
jejunum and ileum
food continues to get broken down and stored
villi
finger like projections of the small intestine
microvilli
microscopic projections on villi
transport across the epithelial cells of the small intestine can be
active
passive
hepatic portal vein
blood vessel that leads directly to the liver
chylomicrons
water soluble globules coated with phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins that circulate in the blood
lacteal
vessel at the core of each villus
colon
1.5 meter long portion of one arm of the T shape which leads to the rectum and anus. major function is to recover water from the lumen if additional water is needed by the body somewhere
cecum
other arm of the long intestine that is important for fermenting ingested materials
feces
wastes of the digestive system
dentition
animals assortment of teeth
hoatzin
herbivorous bird with an esophageal pouch that houses microorganisms that break down cellulose
ruminants
deer, sheep, cattle, that have highly evolved mutualistic adaptations with multiple microorganisms
enteric division
branch of the nervous system dedicated to the digestive organs which regulates events as well as peristalsis in the small and large intestine
endocrine system plays critical role in digestion by doing what?
secreting the right proteins/enzymes at the right place and time
overnourishment
consumption of more calories than the body needs often resulting in obesity
obesity contributes to health problems including:
diabetes
cancer
heart attacks
strokes
leptin
key hormone in the appetite signaling pathway