59 terms

Literary Movements

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Augustan Poets
Name derives from Augustus Caesar of Rome.
Terminology links similar poets together regardless of the time period they lived in.
Eventually overshadowed by the growth of English Romanticism
Augustan Poets
This movement,known as The Restoration Period,
studied natural history, natural philosophy, and natural religion.
Element of Augustan Poetry
Sɪᴍᴘʟᴇ ᴀɴᴅ Dᴇᴄᴏʀᴀᴛɪᴠᴇ Lᴀɴɢᴜᴀɢᴇ
Poetry is labeled as "neoclassicism."
Rooted in classical works, but with a new approach
Element of Augustan Poetry
Focused on nature
Genres included: epic, tragedy, comedy, pastoral, satire and ode.
Element of Augustan Poetry
Repartee
Celebrated idea and quickness of thought
Expressed through imagery and/or metaphors
Element of Augustan Poetry
Iambic Pentameter

Blank verse (unrhymed)
Augustan Poet
John Dryden
Jonathan Swift
Alexander Pope
Samuel Johnson
Confessional Poetry
style of poetry that was brought about in the late 1950's/early 1960's (following World War II)
focused on allowing poets to express their personal perspective and private lives through poems.
Elements of Confessional Poetry
First Person POV
giving the poems more of a personal connection to the poet and showing the reader that the poem is a reflection of the narrators innermost thoughts and feelings. The personal connection through the use of first person narrative is a crucial characteristic in this genre
Elements of Confessional Poetry
Intimate Content
the most intimate style of poetry
includes serious subject matter that is being openly discussed through the text.
Elements of Confessional Poetry
Autobiographical by Design
Elements of Confessional Poetry
Lyrical Craftsmanship
close attention to their use of rhythm and tone in their poems in order to further express their feelings
Confessional Poets
Sylvia Plath Anne Sexton W.D. Snodgrass Robert Lowell Theodore Roethke
Harlem Renaissance Poety
"New Negro Movement"
This awakening began in 1918 to 1937
blacks wanted to define their culture and get rid of stereotypes that the whites made up.
The new awakening "uplifted" the black race
Elements of Harlem Renaissance Poetry
Purpose: To inspire African Americans through popular culture and historical recognition.
Elements of Harlem Renaissance Poetry
Focus and Themes: themes of African American experiences, of the future, and of American identity and the American dream.
Elements of Harlem Renaissance Poetry
Musical Themes: traditional "black" themes of music.
Blues: repetitive ideas
Jazz: interaction between two or more people
Slave songs: call-and-response
African American Spirituals
Elements of Harlem Renaissance Poetry
Dialect: written in the language that was used among the black population to put emphasis on the tone
Harlem Renaissance Poets
Claude Mckay
Langston Hughes
James Weldon Johnson
Metaphysical Poets
John Donne, George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, and Henry Vaughan
Metaphysical Poetry
branch of philosophy that deals with concepts such as time, space, being, identity, cause, and knowing. questions nature and reality in a philosophical way
dealing with the relationship between spirit to matter or the ultimate nature of reality
Elements of Metaphysical Poetry
Passing time
Uneasy relationships between humans or God
Questioning the nature of reality
Fearful and obsessive qualities that death evokes in
Elements of Metaphysical Poetry
humans
Sin and redemption
Profane and sacred love
Intellectual and complex thoughts
Strange imagery
Elements of Metaphysical Poetry
Paradoxes and puns (wit, irony, and wordplay)
Very formal structure
Subtle argumentation
Metaphysical conceit (surprising contrasts)
Intricate psychological analysis
Elements of Metaphysical Poetry
Lyric poems, usually brief but intense meditations
Typically use wit, irony and wordplay
Usually has a very formal structure
New York School of Poets
refers loosely to a group of poets who worked from 1950-1975, influenced by both surrealism and modernism
Elements of New York School of Poets
Usually witty, urbane
Usually refers to cinema and popular culture of the time
Elements of New York School of Poets
Quick tone and theme shifts
Imagery and metaphors plentiful throughout; usually very imaginative
Elements of New York School of Poets
Ironic
Incorporates art within its text
Elements of New York School of Poets
stressed abstract expressionism and experimentation
Often created spoofs and parodies of actual things going on around them
New York School of Poets, Poets
Frank O'Hara
John Ashbery
James Schulyer
Kenneth Koch
Barbara Guest
Postmodernism
attacks traditional ideas, like history, religion, and science is the only true form of knowledge
a simple contradiction of Eighteenth Century philosophy
Postmodernist Poets
Richard Brautigan
Charles Simic
Rita Dove
Carl Sandburg
Elements of Postmodernism
Lack of absolute truth
Ambiguity
Existentialist Themes
Irony
Elements of Postmodernism
Condemning Authority
No distinct format
Intertextuality/ Allusion
Magical realism
The Beat Movement
American social and literary movement centered in the bohemian artist communities
post World War II era
The Beat Movement
Bold, Straightforward, and Expressive work
Were against the societal norms (Counterculture)
The Beat Movement
1. Free Verse
2. Controversial Topics
3. Personal and Emotional
4. Jazz Influences
5. Included aspects of issues going on at the time
stream of consciousness
The Beat Movement Poets
Allen Ginsberg
Jack Kerouac
Gary Snyder
Lawrence Ferlinghetti
Gregory Corso
Kenneth Rexroth
Robert Duncan
The Black Arts Movement
Aimed to explore the political and social applications of African-American art and culture
Works sometimes embraced violence and alienated some demographics
The Black Arts Movement Poets
Hoyt W. Fuller
Maya Angelou
Amiri Baraka
Ed Bullins
Elements of The Black Arts Movement
Blackness
Critiques of whites and "Uncle Tom Negroes"
The American Dream
Separatism
Violence
The Romantic Period
(1) the rich and privileged who owned the nation's burgeoning means of industrial production, and (2) the poor and powerless who were more and more forced from agricultural roots to life in industrial cities.
The Romantic Period
emphasized intuition, imagination and feeling
essentially a poetry of meditation
very organic
Intuition, instincts and feeling over logical reasoning
The Romantic Period Poets
William Wordsworth
Percy Shelley
John Keats
William Blake
Samuel Taylor Coleridge,
Lord Byron
Symbolist Poetry
reaction against naturalism and realism, which promoted ordinary over imagination
elevate spirituality, imagination, and dreams
Symbolist Poetry
Usually written in free verse
Vocabulary and content not very clear or objective
Extremely metaphoric
Symbolist Poetry
Represents absolute truths that can only be described indirectly
Symbols often not intended to represent just one idea, but rather kindle some kind of emotional state in readers by describing objects
Symbolist Poets
Charles Baudelaire
Stephen Mallarme
Paul Verlaine
Arthur Rimbaud
Transcendalism
following America's gain of independence from Great Britain
Knowledge can be found through intuition and spiritualism
Decided it was time for literary independence from the customs of European nations
Elements of Transcendalism
Intuition: Believed in a realm of experience
Individualism and Self Reliance: independent pursuit of knowledge without the afterthought of society
Elements of Transcendalism
Nature: Believed that industrialization was luring people away from nature's beauty
Religion and Divinity: Believed organized religion was nonsensical, God resides in the natural universe
Transcendalist Poets
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Walt Whitman
Henry David Thoreau
Amos Bronson Alcott
James Russell Lowell
Modernism
involved the self-conscious break from the traditional styles of poetry. Basically, people adopted the idea of "out with the old, and in with the new."
Modernism
Experimentation and individuality became the morals of the time period, whereas in the past they were looked down upon
reaction against the victorian ages and that culture
Modernist Poets
Ezra Pound ("A Girl")
Marianne Moore ("What are years")
Philip Larkin ("Aubade")
Robert Frost ("Fire and Ice")
T.s. Eliot ("The Waste Land")
E.E. Cummings ("I will wade out")
Elements of Modernism
Use of enjambment and mid-line caesura
Sophisticated vocabulary and extensive use of metaphors, symbols, and analogies
Themes of uncovering universal harmony (ex. nature as pristine & harmonious)
Elements of Modernism
References to classical figures (especially greek mythology & middle east/far east locales)
Cultured view of the world
Promotion of a vision for the world shaped by radical beliefs (ex. Astrology)
Elements of Modernism
introduction of new rhyme schemes and meters into spanish verse
attempt to bring out musicality of language (ex. "harmony of sound" reflects "harmony of soul")
avoidance of local or regional politics and realities
use of foreign models, such as contemporain, which went against romanticism through the use of precise form, emotional detachment, and flawless workmanship