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the study of the function of the body in living things.


the study of cells.

Prokaryotic Cells

do not have a nuclear membrane or a membrane surrounding their intracellular organelles.

Eukaryotic Cells

have nuclear membranes surrounding the cell and intracellular organelles.

Cell membrane

composed mainly of a double layer of lipids (hydrophobic, water hating, molecules) and phosphorus molecules (hydrophilic, water loving) that surround and protect the cell and serve as a "gatekeeper" by letting various substances in or out.


A cell's ________ is separated from the cell's cytoplasm by a double membrane that protects the cell's DNA from molecules that could harm it.


a gel-like substance that fills most cells and serves to surround and protect organelles.


an organelle in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that performs the process of photosynthesis in order to create energy for the cell.


structures within plant and eukaryotic algae cells that store chlorophyll (product necessary for photosynthesis) so it can be used by chloroplasts.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

the transportation network within a cell containing attached protein-generating ribosomes.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

the cell's transportation system that does not have attached ribosomes.


membrane-bound organelles that contain destructive enzymes and carry out digestive functions within the cell.

Golgi apparatus

an organelle involved in the synthesis, manufacture, storage, and distribution of various macromolecules including hormones and enzyme materials.


are organelles within a cell that work to manufacture, store, and secrete various oxidation enzymes needed to rid the cell of toxic substances.


are spaces in a cell that serve to remove unwanted wastes and water from the cell and also can function as a storage space for chemicals and compounds.


is a barrel shaped microtubule structure within an animal cell that is very important in cell reproduction.


are cellular structures that contain genes, which interact in order to influence/determine hereditary information within cells.


the property of cells to regulate their internal environment in order to maintain balance or working equilibrium.

Active transport

a method by which materials (biochemicals, molecular substances, etc.) move across membranes; this process requires a cell to use energy in order to move the materials "uphill" against a gradient.


cells absorb substances from outside the cell by engulfing the material within its membrane.


a type of endocytosis in which a cell's membrane envelops particles and takes them in to form phagosomes (food vacuoles).


the phase of the cell cycle (mitosis) in which a cell grows through protein synthesis and oxidation reactions in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, DNA replication occurs.


the phase of cellular division (mitosis) involving the shortening and thickening of chromatids, replicated strands of DNA making up a chromosome, dissolving of the nuclear membrane and disappearance of the nucleoli, and formation of spindle fibers (microtubules).


the phase of cellular division in which the centromeres of the chromosomes align along the equator (middle) of the cell's spindle and the chromosome pairs attach to the spindle at the centromere, a specialized region of the chromosome.


During the __________ of cellular division, sister chromatids are pulled apart into single-stranded chromosomes, which migrate to opposite ends of the cell.


The _________ of cellular division involves the uncoiling of chromosomes and the reappearance of the nucleoli and the nuclear membrane around each set of sister chromosomes.

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