184 terms

World History Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Ishmael
father of Arab nations, Abraham's eldest son
samurai
Japanese warriors
Joan of Arc
champion for France, pretended she was a guy, pushed the English army back at the English Channel, several victories in the Hundred Years' War
John Wycliffe
Morning Star of the Reformation, 1st to translate the Bible into English
conquistadors
"conquerors", explored the new world for Spain
plebeians
poor, working class people, majority (Rome)
patricians
aristocratic, rich class (Rome)
bedouins
nomadic Arabs
Slavs
played a major role in creating the Russian state
Kublai Khan
established the Yuan dynasty in China (Mongol Empire)
Genghis Khan
"universal ruler", greatest Mongol conqueror and founder of the Mongol Empire
Miguel Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote, about chivalry
Erasmus
Prince of Humanities, wrote The Praise of Folly, church reform, Greek New Testament
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote The Prince
Ulrich Zwingli
forerunner of the Reformation in Switzerland, wrote Sixty-seven conclusions
John Knox
leader of the Protestant reformation In Scotland, influenced by Calvin, Scotland becomes Protestant
3 Roman Civil Wars
...
Classes in the Middle Ages
clergy, nobility, peasantry
Richard the Lionhearted
goes on the Kings Crusade, gets kidnapped on the way home
journeyman
day laborer under the master
master
passed the exam by making a masterpiece, then took an oath
apprentice
learns the trade, lives with the master
Dante Alighieri
wrote Divine Comedy (about Purgatory)
Geoffrey Chaucer
wrote Canterbury Tales (about a group of pilgrims and their journey)
Henry VIII
"defender of the faith" (Catholic), divorced Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Ferdinand/Isabella)
Elizabeth I
had to be Protestant to have a claim to the throne, 45 year reign, Good Queen Bess, Act of Supremacy, wrote the Thirty-nine Articles, Elizabethan Settlement (Anglican Church)
humanities
study of human thought, beliefs, & culture
recitations
...
icons
religious work of art/image
Estates General
representation for the 3 social classes in France
gothic cathedral
flying buttresses, stained glass windows, arches, light-filled, expansive
recant
take back what you said
indulgences
certificate that gives forgiveness from punishment of sins
Jamestown
1607, 1st permanent English settlement in the New World
latitude
how far you are from the equator
human depravity
every aspect of every human's being (body, mind, emotions) has been stained by the Fall
divine providence
God has planned all of human history
divine sovereignty
phrase referring to God's complete & permanent authority over this world
history
comes from the Greek word historia meaning "inquiry"; prepares us for the future, gives us cultural identity, declares God's glory
worldview
perspective from which we may examine & interpret the universe & everything in it
Mesopotamia
"land between the rivers" (Tigris & Euphrates)
Polis
independent from all others
diaspora
scattering/dispersion of the Jewish people
chivalry
code of conduct for knights: brave in battle, skillful with weapons, honest/generous, & loyal to their lord
sola fide
justification by faith alone
October 31, 1517
the day Martin Luther posted the Ninety-five Theses in Wittenberg
System of Justice
...
Buddhism
birthplace in India, Buddha = the "Enlightened One", Four Noble Truths
Taoism
based on teachings of Lao-tzu, live in harmony with nature, basis of superstition in Chinese society
Confucianism
based on teachings of Confucius, proper conduct to solve problems & have happiness, focused on bringing 5 basic relationships into harmony/order
Hinduism
ingrained in the Indian way of life, Brahman = great god who permeates nature, wheel of life = cycle of rebirths
Humanism
rediscovery of works man has done
Humanists
people who study the humanities
balance of power
nations formed alliances to ensure that no one nation would dominate the other countries of Europe
cabinet government
closest advisors of the king discuss matters of the state
Glorious Revolution
the "bloodless" Revolution where William and Mary assumed the vacant throne of James II
Thirty Years War
last great religious war fought in Europe
divine right
kings claim that God has established their authority
Romanov
Russia family dynasty
French-Indian War
also called the Seven Years War, Dipolmatic Revolution - radical change in alliances
Treaty of Paris
signed by France, Britain, and Spain to end the French-Indian War
Habeas Corpus Act
made it illegal for the government to arbitrarily hold someone in jail
Bill of Rights
limited royal power, established certain civil liberties, forbade future kings/queens from being Roman Catholic
czar
term that comes from "caesar", Russia ruler
heliocentric
sun-centered theory
Johannes Kepler
discovered elliptical (oval-shaped) orbits of the planets
Galileo Galilei
best-known astronomer in history; physics, pendulums, grandfather clock, telescopes
Sir Francis Bacon
inductive reasoning (from specific cases to general conclusions)
Enlightenment
looked to human reason as the solution for all of life's problems
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Father of Romanticism, favored emotion & sentiment above reason
John Locke
founded Empiricism = all knowledge comes through experience
Voltaire
outspoken critic of abuses in society, hated organized religion, championed freedom of press
Deism
God designed the universe as a self-sustaining mechanism & established the natural laws by which it operates
Isaac Newton
reflecting telescope, calculus, laws of gravity, theory of gravitation
Montesquieu
separation of powers (executive, judicial, legislative)
coup d'etat
sudden illegal seizure of power
Battle of Saratoga
turning point of the War of Independence
Daniel Defoe
his writing led to the development of the modern novel, wrote Robinson Crusoe
Jonathan Swift
master of prose
John Wesley
leader of the Methodists, founder of the Methodist Church, traveled and preached on horseback
George Whitefield
traveled constantly preaching the Gospel, his efforts helped further the Great Awakening (evangelist)
Jonathan Edwards
famous for his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
Treaty of Paris 1783
officially acknowledged independence of the colonies from England
Mayflower Compact
temporary agreement establishing civil authority
Articles of the Confederation
gave a weak federal government, too much state power
American Revolution
thirteen colonies join together to break free from the British Empire
Congress System
major powers hope to work together to avoid major wars & suppress nationalism/liberalism
Monroe Doctrine
warned European nations to leave colonies in the Western Hemisphere alone, would be considered an "unfriendly" act of aggression
Edgar Allan Poe
Father of Modern Mystery and Detective Fiction, wrote The Raven
James Fenimore Cooper
wrote The Leatherstocking Tales (The Last of the Mohicans)
William Wordsworth
expressed deep love of nature through poetry, man is innately good
nationalism
ambitions of small & large groups to seek independence or defend their ethnic interests
liberalism
stressed individual rights such as life, liberty, & property in addition to personal freedoms (religion, speech, press)
Frederick Chopin
Polish, "poet of the piano", nationalistic music
Peter Tchaikovsky
Russian, composed Nutcracker & 1812 Overture
Quadruple Alliance
Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia (France later joins)
Romanticism
idealism, emotional, originality, nationalism, uncertainty, desire (themes: the past, supernatural, "noble savage", nature, freedom, one's nation)
welfare state
government assumes the responsibility for the material & social well-being of every individual from "cradle to grave"
Impressionism
light/color = chief concern
bourgeoisie
middle class (minority), property owners, capitalists, & industrialists/factory owners
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin, interchangeable parts
James Watt
designed the 1st practical/efficient steam engine
Henry Ford
produced the famous Model T automobile, assembly line
William Booth
founded the Salvation Army
Robert Raikes
founded Sunday schools
Albert Einstein
greatest scientific thinker of the 20th century,
E = mc2, theory of relativity
William Wilberforce
led the anti-slavery movement
Charles Darwin
laid the foundation for the modern theories of biological evolution, wrote Origin of Species (1859), "survival of the fittest"
David Livingstone
among the 1st European explorers to travel to Africa's interior, missionary
Matthew Perry
US naval commander who opened Japan to trade
Henry Stanley
British explorer hired to find Dr. Livingstone in Africa
Maoris
native New Zealanders
Quebec Act
permitted French Canadians to retain their language, law, customs, & religion
Boers
Dutch colonists, means "farmers"
Boxer Rebellion
secret societies vowing to rid China of all Western influences through whatever means necessary
Opium Wars
British vs. Chinese, result of tension over opium trade & foreign trade
extraterritoriality
Westerners who broke Chinese law had the right to be tried in their own national courts
Roosevelt Corollary
in case of any wrongdoing against Latin America, the US claimed the right to intervene
Monroe Doctrine
any European attempt to colonize the Western Hemisphere
Fourteen Points
modern settlement advocated by Wilson which would NOT seek revenge on defeated powers
Chauvinism
caused many to desire war so they could prove their superiority over other nations
War Guilt Clause
placed the entire blame for the war on Germany & her allies
ultimatum
list of demands with threats to Serbia, Austria declares war a month later
stalemate
situation in which both sides are at a standstill
reparations
economic provisions
armistice
temporary cessation of fighting
Andrew Carnegie
donated funds to build the Peace Palace at The Hague, steel industry
Kellogg-Briand Pact
agreement calling upon all nations to renounce the use of offensive war = made war illegal
Washington Naval Conference
disarmament (elimination of weapons/arms), limits the number of warships that big countries could build, a failure
Paris Peace Conference
70 delegates from 32 nations met to negotiate a peace settlement for WWI
dole
government relief for the unemployed
purges
wiping out anyone who might be disloyal to Stalin
Mein Kampf
"My Struggle" written by Hitler while in prison for a revolt
Bureaucracy
the non-elected officials who handle government affairs
Adolf Hitler
one of the most murderous & tyrannical dictators in modern history
Benito Mussolini
leader of the Fascist party in Italy, became the premier of Italy, il Dulce = leader/commander
Joseph Stalin
established himself as dictator of the USSR after Lenin, literally re-wrote history
Vladimir Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks, believed in violent revolutions, student of Karl Marx
Reichstag
German Parliament
Five Year Plan
series of programs Stalin designed to build industrial production
New Deal
programs initiated by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt for relief, recovery, & reform
amphibious assault
invasion by sea
banzai charges
war cry shouted by Japanese troops
sanction
forbidding the sale of certain materials
appeasement
buying off an aggressor by making concessions
Mao Zedong
led Communist forces in China against Chiang Kai-shek
Francisco Franco
dictator in Spain
Sun Yat-sen
leader of the Nationalist Party in China
September 1, 1939
German forces attack Poland, start of WWII
Big Three
Churchill, Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt
Holocaust
German atrocities in concentration camps, death of over 6 million Jews
blitzkrieg
"lightning war"
Berlin Wall
most recognizable symbol of the Cold War (Iron Curtain)
Viet Cong
Communist guerillas
Iron Lady
Margaret Thatcher, conservative leader who campaigned against socialism, served longer than any other British prime minister
containment
major objective of American foreign policy during the Cold War
Fidel Castro
Communist dictator in Cuba
Mikhail Gorbachev
initiated reforms such as perestroika = "restructuring" - a wide range of social, political, and economic reforms & glasnost = "openness"
Konrad Adenauer
1st Chancellor of West Germany who rebuilt the economy
Truman Doctrine
the US would support any country threatened by Communist aggression
Marshall Plan
aka the European Recovery Act, provided massive economic assistance to war-ravaged Europe ($5.3 billion)
Domino Theory
if Vietnam fell, then other Asian countries would also fall to Communism
Tet Offensive
happened on New Years, Viet Cong demonstrated their surprising strength
Al-Qaeda
founded by Osama bin Ladin, a network of terrorists responsible for the 9/11/01 attacks on the World Trade Centers
euro
single currency for member nations of the EU (European Union) except Great Britain
M. Gandhi
leader of the Indian nationalists who used passive resistance
Afrikaners
Dutch descent whites
Nelson Mandela
leader for black majority rule, imprisoned for about 30 years by whites, 1st black president of South Africa (1994)
George W. Bush
won the closest Presidential election in American history against Al Gore
Vladimir Putin
former KGB official acting as President of Russia, re-elected in 2004
Slobodan Milosevic
succeeded Tito as dictator, Serbian president who began a campaign of mass murders in Kosovo, arrested by NATO & charged for war crimes
Osama bin Ladin
wealthy Saudi, founder of Al-Qaeda
Yasser Arafat
demanded a separate Palestinian state & initiated intifada = uprisings
Ayatollah Khomeini
highest title of honor, new ruler
Suez Crisis
1956 - Egypt vs. Britain, France, & Israel
Six-Day War
1967 - Arab-Israeli War
Yom Kippur War
1073 - Arabs attack on a Jewish holiday
Globalism
an international rather than a national focus
decolonization
when imperialist nations grant independence to their colonies
developing nations
Third World Countries characterized by poverty, lack of production, & political instability
genocide
systematic extermination of a race or ethnic or religious group
terrorism
use of indiscriminate violence, or the threat of it, for political ends
passive resistance
non-violent program designed to defy British rule through strikes, mass demonstrations, & refusal to pay taxes
things to know for geography
Poland, Great Britain, France, Germany, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, Egypt, Gulf of Tonkin, Iraq, Afghanistan, Israel, Hawaiian Islands