44 terms

7th Grade Social Studies, Chapter 6


Terms in this set (...)

Common Sense
Thomas Paine
"We have it in our power to begin the world anew."
He calls King George III "a royal brute."
Argues that the common man can participate in government and govern themselves.
George Mason
Wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights; Along with James Madison he was also called the "Father of the Bill of Rights"
Virginia Declaration of Rights
All people are born with an equality of natural rights, and that governmental power is derived from the people. It guarantees the right of a free press, property rights, speedy jury trials, and religious liberty.
Thomas Jefferson
Writes a list of grievances of formal complaint against the King.
Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Declaration of Independence
89 items were removed from this document, including any language that criticized the practice of slavery.
Preamble to Declaration of Independence
An introduction to a speech or piece of writing.
Governments are formed to protect people's rights. If a government violates those rights, the people have a right to abolish their government and create another. Caution should be exercised before doing this- men often suffer under a bad government than bring about a change. However, when a government has repeatedly abused the rights of the governed, it is the right and the duty of the governed to throw out such government.
List of Grievances to Declaration of Independence
formal complaints against the King. There were 27.
Conclusion to Declaration of Independence
After establishing an argument that the colonies have a right to do away with an unjust government, and demonstrating a violation of rights, Jefferson reaches the logical conclusion.
General William Howe
Commander of the British Amy
Admiral Richard Howe
Commander of the British Navy
Battle of Brooklyn Heights
August 27th, 1776: British attack Washington's front lines, and flank the Americans from the east. The Americans were forced to retreat to Brooklyn Heights. 400 Soldiers from Maryland stay to hold back the British while remaining. American troops retreat. Only 10 make it to Brooklyn Heights.
Maryland 400 - Battle of Brooklyn Heights
"Suicide Mission"
400 soldiers from Maryland stay to hold back the British while remaining. American troops retreat. Only 10 make it to Brooklyn Heights.
Significance of Battle of Brooklyn Heights
-First battle of the Revolutionary War after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
-Longest battle
-British will take NYC 3 weeks later and hold it for the rest of the war.
-Defeat for the Americans, but it is a pattern for future battles in the war. British could attack American positions, but suffer high casualties, and could not annihilate the American Army.
Fall of NY to the British Battle of Brooklyn Heights
British will take NYC 3 weeks later and hold it for the rest of the war.
Nathan Hale
-A Connecticut officer, who is 21.
-Volunteer to spy and collect any info about the British battle plan on Long Island.
-"I only regret that I have but bone life to serve for my country."
-He was caught, tried, and sentenced to death.
The Crisis
A pamphlet written by Tom Paine during the darkest days of the Revolution for the Patriots that spurred them to keep fighting. "The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot..."
Battle of Trenton
Soldiers lit campfires. After dark, most men pack up and quietly withdraw. Some stay to keep the fire burning.
-Hired mercenaries
-American slang for the German troops under British command
-German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
-Germans who were paid professionally to fight and help the British in the American Revolution. They did not necessarily hold the same political beliefs as the British soldiers.
Battle of Saratoga
-American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
-1777, battle giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War; turning point in war; French openly supported the Americans after this battle.
-British recapture Fort Ticonderoga. Americans rush to block British. American commander in NY, Horatio Gates, has 6000 men ready to fight. Americans surround the British.
General John Burgoyne Battle of Saratoga
-British general in Battle of Saratoga.
-planned to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies.
General Howe had unintentionally abandoned Burgoyne which led to American troops surrounding them and making them surrender
Horatio Gates Battle of Saratoga
Burgoyne was forced to surrender his command to this American general on October 17,1777 at the battle of Saratoga.
Significance of Battle of Saratoga
-"The turning Point" in the war for American victory.
-Ends British threat to New England
-Destroys British hope for a quick and easy victory.
-Lifts patriots' spirits when Washington's army is suffering defeats.
-Convinced the Europeans that the Americans have a chance of winning the war. France officially sides with the American Patriots!
Alliance with the French
French officially side with the Patriots
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Polish engineer who served in the Continental Army; designer for a fort near Saratoga, where Americans won a key victory.
Baron Von Steuben
claims to be a German officer who trained German troops when he arrives at Valley Forge offering services - trains troops effectively at Valley Forge and becomes a U.S. general - his methods become the model for training other Continental Army soldiers, and are eventually used at U.S. Military Academy - after war, it's discovered that his credentials and experience aren't what he claimed, but he's still viewed as a hero since he did exactly what he said he could do.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition, Steuben comes and trains troops.
James Armistead Lafayette
A slave from Virginia who served in the Continental Army and was given his freedom after the war.
Role of Women in the War
Many travel with the heir husbands to military camps. Many are nurses and cooks. Those who remain at home take over the duties of their husbands. They take over farming, and run businesses. Deborah Sampson disguised herself as a man in order to fight. She was wounded in battle, so to protect her secret, she she tended to her own wounds. Bravery.
Paper money a good idea, but the more money that was printed, the less it's value/worth. By the end of the war, money had lost much of its value.
George Rogers Clark
200 mile trek through cold, icy rivers to capture Fort Vincennes in today's Indiana. This allows settlers to remain on frontier and strengthens their claim to the Ohio River Valley.
Bernardo de Galvez
Louisiana Governor secretly supplies money and weapons to George Rogers Clark and others. Gave safe harbor to American ships. Spanish attacks on British forts on Missippi River and Gulf of Mexico.
Havana's Ladies
Raise $7 million for the Continental Army, "so the American mothers' sons are not born as slaves." Without this, Washington may have run short of money at a critical point in the war.
Commander John Paul Jones
American ship Bonhomie Richard
British ship Serapis
Two ships, one American, one British, both ripped to shreds by cannon and musket. Commander refuses to give up. American commander says "I have not yet begun to fight." Captain of Brtitish ship surrenders.
General Charles Cornwallis
-British General moves into North Carolina.
-British general who led the British war effort in the American south.
-The British general who surrendered to General Washington at Yorktown to the end war. It was officially over in 1783 when the peace church treaty was signed
Small bands of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks.
Francis Marion
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution. He would attack without warning and escape.
Nathaniel Greene
-Takes command of Continental Army in South.
-Nathanael Greene was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia.
Daniel Morgan
Battle of Cowpens
-January 1781
-Brilliant Victoria for Patriots led by Daniel Morgan.
Benedict Arnold
West Point
Originally a Patriot Officer. He felt unsalted by Congress when he was passed over for several promotions. He had been given command of West Point. Pretends to be loyal to Patriots, but begins to plot with British to "lose" West Point in an attack.
Siege of Yorktown
- In 1781, French and American forces encircled and trapped British General Cornwallis's army, forcing surrender of 8,000 troops.
-"The world was turned upside down"
Which of the following was the last major action of the American Revolution
A decisive victory for the Americans with help from the French army. This was the last major land battle of the war in the North American theater after Cornwallis surrendered and the British negotiated an end to the war (1781)
"The World Turned Upside Down"
The song the british marched out to as they surrendered.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War.

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Borders of US after Revolution
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the Southern border of Canada to the Northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Missippi River.