Medieval Europe, Middle Ages History
Final exam with Mr. McKee
When Europeans started to restore order
1st king of the Franks, united Frank tribes into one kingdom
sons and successors of Clovis, ruled France for 200 years
charles the hammer, Frank military and political leader, Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingians.
*****Won battle of Tours defeating an invading Moorish army.
********Halted Islamic expansion in Western Europe.
Frankish noble family
from Charles Martel
Rulers of Franks after Merovingians after a long rise to power
Charlemagne came from this family
Charles the Great
Emperor of Holy Roman Empire
Reunited fractured West Europe under one empire after decline of Roman empire giving Europe a common identity
Sword and Cross (used military and church to unite and control
Raised a declining life style of people
Focused on raising citizens standard of living
Revival of art, religion, and culture through the Catholic Church
Nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian
Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, & pirates who raided Europe, Asia and North Atlantic islands.
Long boats sailed rivers so they traveled and raided successfully
Struck terror in Europe. Settled in Europe.
legal and military customs in medieval europe 9th century to 15th century
holding land in exchange for service or labor
nobility, clerics, peasantry
fee. land given for services to the ruler
mutual agreement with a lord to provide military support or protection for privileges or land
right, by law, or custom for 1st born to inherit an entire estate
monks lived in communities called monasteries, and nuns in convents
way of life for monks and nuns (rules and how they lived)
shaped economy of europe during middle ages
giving legal and economic power to the Lord of a Manor. This Lord received payments (labor or service usually) from the peasants working his land.
could not leave Lord of the Manor (landlord) without permission from the Lord
code of conduct for knights
bravery, courtesy, honor, gallantry
most powerful members of the curia, a group of counselors to the Catholic Church pope
princes of the church (very powerful)
abbot or abbess
elected head of the community in a Benectine Rule
controlled and distributed property
male or female leader
Catholic church laws and courts
Church court order against an entire region. All the churchs would be closed and their clergy could not do church rituals. Thus giving all these people risk of eternal punishment by God.
people who denied the truth of the church's beliefs or preached against them.
church power to tax people 1/10th of their income
buy high position within the church organization
Set up a monestary in Monte Cassino, Italy. He created these monestary rules that many followed in monestaries and covenants throughout europe
Hildegard of Bengen
wrote religious music and medical text
vocal critic of corrupt church practices
made a saint
brought Christianity to Ireland
lead monks to England and thus brought Christianity to England
church ordered Dominicans (monks) to search for heretics.
governmental district in England, divided up kingdoms
based upon customs and judges decisions rather than written codes of law
Alfred the Great
came to throne of Wessex, began driving the Danes (vikings and rulers) from England
Edward the Confessor
Anglo Saxon nobles chose him as their new king as the Danish kings died out. He had no heir.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy, a distant relative of Edward, claimed the throne. The Anglo Saxons wanted Harold of Wessex ( brother in law) to be king instead.
Came across the channel with many Norman knights and fought the battle of Hastings. He won and became King of England. He brought Norman ways and language to England.
England began to combine Norman (French) and Anglo Saxon (German) cultures and language.
More power to the king not the nobles. Brought the feudal system.
Had a survey done of all shires and set up a central tax system. This survey was called the Domesday Book
Increased royal authority. Nobles could pay a fee rather than provide services to the king. Henry could then build up his own paid army loyal to him.
Legal system grew with trial by jury added. Gave more power to legal courts than church courts.
archbishop of Cantebury. Refused his clergy to be tried in Royal Courts. He and Henry were friends but became enemies over this. He was murdered by the king's knights.
He was made a saint and Henry lost some power over this.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Henry II wife. She and her sons plotted against Henry II. Her French lands brought war with France into England.
protected liberties of nobles and limit king's power. Provided a limited outline of rights for England's ordinary people.
Made law the supreme power of England not the king.
Cornerstone of constitutional government and rule by law.
Feudal lords elected him to become king.
developed a strong kingdom in Germany
helped Pope John XII with some Roman nobles, so he was given Northern Italy to add to his kingdom.
It was the Holy Roman Empire and was very powerful 700 years.
The height of imperial power.
He chose popes thus putting the church under his power.
Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII
England king fought powerful pope over who had the most power: kings or popes
church vs state rule
King wanted to appoint church leaders...Pope said no and excommunicated Henry.
King lost power and asked for the pope's forgiveness.
Ruled Germany. Tried to get control of Italy. Took over Milan.
The pope helped form the Lombard League and they kicked him out of Italy.
strongest of medieval popes
strengthen church and increased its worldly power
believed in supreme earthly power of church and kings were subject to the church
he got involved in conflicts all over europe
used interdict's to control kings, they paid to have them removed.
overthrew kings and put rulers of his choice on thrones
Oversaw 4th crusade
Muslim people from central Asia gain control over Palestine (Holy Land to Christians)
Then attacked Asia Minor or Byzantine empire
Threatened to attack Constantinople, emperor asked pope for help.
Christian pilgrims reported being persecuted in Palestine by the Turks.
The pope that the Constantinople emperor asked for help.
He began the crusades asking all feudal lords to join in the fight to regain Palestine.
military expeditions to regain the Holy Land
10,000 europeans participated
sewed crosses on their clothes
appealed to love of adventure and promise of spiritual and material rewards
gained control of Jerusalem during the 3rd crusade
a truce was arrived at to allow Christians to enter Jerusalem freely
Children of crusades
several thousand young people from france and germany went on another crusade after the 4th. they were ill prepared and were tricked into going on ships and becoming slaves.
Results of crusades
palestine became muslim
europeans discovered new ways to wage war
fewer lords and so kings got more power so ending feudalism
Christian church more powerful
Increased trade between Italy and Asia
Europeans came back with new ideas and products
goods and services exchanged for goods and services
manufacturing (making goods) took place in people's homes rather than shops or factories
land, labor and capital are controlled by individual persons
had right to trade in a town. merchants grouped together to help each other do well.
other merchants had to pay a fee to trade in a town where they were not members of a guild
skilled workers came together to make a guild
set rules for wages, work hours, work conditions
set standards of quality
controlled training of new skilled workers
craft guild training, step 1
paid a master worker to train a child
5-9 years of training
step 2 in craft guild training
skilled worker paid by his master
class between nobles and peasants or unskilled workers
in europe and mediterranean
carried from china by trade routes
carried by flea infested rats
1/3 of europe died 25 mill. people
faith in God shaken
church lost power
workers were in short supply so now demanded higher wages
peasants staged uprisings
upper classes lost more power
language people with little education spoke
common language not Latin
so english, german, spanish, italian
wrote love poems
vernacular literature reached it height in the middle ages with his writings
wrote in Tuscan vernacular language...which lead to this form of Italian becoming Italy's language
father of Italian language
Divine Comedy his most famous....pointed out faults in Italian society
His most famous English novel...Canterbury Tales
pokes fun at English society especially the clergy
Gave middle English great literary prestige
greatest philosopher of middle ages
used Artistole's and Arab thinkers ideas
wrote a rational proof of God
bring faith and reason together--scholasticism
new church architecture
tall ceilings and spires
high and thin
large stained glass windows
cities were built around these huge churches
trade was done around and in the churches
highest artist skills where put on these buildings
hundred years war
England and France fought over control of France
England lost all possessions in France
England lost power and France now became powerful
use of new weapons....long bow, could shot a long way
gun powder and cannons used
knightly fighting ended
House of commons gained power and king lost power
War of the Roses
war for Englands throne began after 100 yr war
Between York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) families
Lancaster king after war of roses
married a york woman so united 2 families
set up a strong monarchy in england again
Joan of Arc
helped crown the king of france and then the french backed the king and drove the english out
god spoke to her and told her to lead the french to victory over english
french were inspired by her
caught and burned at stake by english
made french monarchy much stronger
harsh but efficient government
untied france as a country
reduce power of lords
Spain became a nation under him
took power away from church courts and nobles
ordered all jews and moors to become christians or leave
many left and with them left many leaders in industry and trade
wife of ferdinand (of aragon)
brought country of castile
family that had a member become emperor of switzerland
weak kingdom with little land but used the royalty name to marry other royalty
this lead to the family gaining control of austria and lands around central europe
continued to become a powerful family
added the netherlands, luxembourg, and burgundy.
married in a spanish royal family and gained large spanis and italian holdings
eventually become most powerful family in europe
could not reunite the holy roman empire