40 terms

Anthropology Exam 1


Terms in this set (...)

a change in physical structure, function, or behavior that allows an organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment
one or more alternative forms of a gene
all chromosomes, except the sex chromosomes, that occur in pairs in all somatic cells (not the gametes)
the strand of DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes that contains hundreds or thousands of genes
geographic continuum of the frequency of specific biological traits
clinal distribution of traits
traits like sickle cell increase in frequency in areas where malaria is endemic, and decrease where it is not
a sequence of three nitrogen bases carried by mRNA that are coded to produce specific amino acids in protein synthesis
continuous trait
one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes
(of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
discrete traits
a trait controlled by one gene: you either have it or you don't
a double-stranded molecule that provides the genetic code for an organism, consisting of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and four types of nitrogen bases
refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype and that simultaneously masks the effects of another allele (recessive) if another is present
eukaryotic cells
cells with internal compartments separated by membranes; nuclear envelop contains the nucleus, and the cell membranes encircles the cytoplasm; split into somatic cells and gametes
sex cells, ova and sperm, haploid, can unite with gamete of the opposite type to create a new organism
the basic unit of inheritance; a sequence of DNA on a chromosome coded to produce a specific protein
gene pool
all the genetic information in a breeding population
the genetic makeup of an organism; the combination of alleles for a given gene
a cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes
having inherited two different alleles for one gene from your parents
homologous chromosomes
each set of paired chromosomes in the genome
having inherited the same alleles for one gene from both parents
Hox genes
genes that differentiate the specific segments of the body, such as the head, tail, and limbs, during embryological development
the location of a specific gene on a chromosome
photograph of a person's chromosomes that have been arranged in homologous pairs and put in numerical order by size
the production of gamete cells through one DNA replication and two cell (and nuclear) divisions, creation four haploid gamete cells
melanin-producing cells located in the skin's epidermis
small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next
large-scale evolution, such as a speciation event, that occurs after hundreds or thousands of generations
the process of cellular and nuclear division that creates two identical diploid daughter cells
mitochondrial DNA, containing 37 genes, inherited just from the mother; heteroplasmic, meaning it can differ among different parts of the person's body and even within the same kind of cells
a random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait that may be advantageous, deleterious, or neutral in its effects on the organism (point=change of one base to another, frameshift=insertion or deletion of nitrogen bases)
building block of DNA, made up of a phosphate group (which form connections with other ______s), a sugar, and a single nitrogen base
nucleotide bases
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine (in RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil)
the physical expression of the genotype; it may be influenced by the environment
the gene pool of a breeding group of organisms
prokaryotic cells
cells without internal compartments sealed off by membranes; no nucleus; free-floating genetic material in the cytoplasm
an allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype if two copies are present but masked if the dominant allele is present
copying of DNA through transcription and translation
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
a single-stranded molecule involved in protein synthesis consisting of a phosphate, ribose sugar, and four nitrogen bases
when a new species is created; a species is a group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring