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how do you find the area of a circle

A= Pi x r2

how do you fine the area of a rectangle

a = length x width

what is the root of a number

a root of a number is one of two or more equal numbers that, when multiplied together, will produce the number

what is the procedure for dividing one fraction by another

invert the divisor and multiply the numerators together and the denominators together

what is a key step to perform in preparing to add or subtract unlike fraction

find their lowest common denominator

what is the procedure for converting a fraction into a decimal

divide the numerator by the denominator

what is the procedure for converting a fraction into a percent

divide the numerator by the denominator, move the decimal point over two places in the quotient, and affix a percent symbol

differentiate between the terms "overhaul" and "rebuilding" as it pertains to aircraft engine maintenance records

overhauled engines must be tested to approved current standards and technical data. Rebuilt engine must be tested to same tolerances and limits as a new item, using new or old parts that conform to new part tolerances and limits or to approved oversize or undersize dimensions.

who may make a maintenance record entry for approval for return to service after a progressive inspection is performed, when the aircraft is away from home base

an applicable certificated mechanic an appropriately rated repair station or an aircraft manufacturer

what could the penalty be for any person who makes or causes to be made a fraudulent or intentionally false entry in any record or repot that is required to be kept

the suspension or revocation of the applicable airmen certificate

when is a maintenance record entry requites to contain the aircraft total time

inspection record entry

what is the minimum scope and detail that the checklist must contain when performing a 100 hour inspection

that which is shown in FAR part 43 appendix D

what systems on a rotorcraft are required to be inspected in accordance with the maintenance manual or instructions for continued airworthiness of the manufacturer concerned when performing an inspection required by FAR part 91

the drive shafts or similar systems; the main rotor transmission gearbox for obvious defects; the main rotor and center sections; the auxiliary rotor on helicopters

name two ways to identify serviceable parts and accessories prior to installation on an aircraft or engine

entry in the maintenance record of that equipment consisting of serviceable tags, PMA tags, maintenance release or FAA form 337

what is the distribution of FAA form 337 after it is completed

one signed copy of the form to the aircraft owner and a copy of that form to the FAA

when a required inspection of an aircraft is performed and defects are found which render the aircraft unairworthy, what maintenance record entries must be made

maintenance records (logbook) and a list of discrepancies furnished to the owner

explain what time in service is in regard to maintenance record entries

"time in service" with respect to maintenance time records, means the time from the moment an aircraft leaves the surface of the earth until it touches it at the next point of landing

what regulation authorizes a certificated mechanic with inspection authorization to approve or disapprove a major repair or major alteration

FAR section 65.95

In addition to the maintenance records, where should a description of a major alteration be recorded

FAA form 337

What entry is required in the aircraft records after maintenance has been performed

a description of the work, date of completion, name of person performing the work, the signature of person approving for return to service, certificate number, and kind of certificate held

Who makes the final maintenance record entry after a 100 hour inspection is completed

the person approving for return to service

where is a 100 hour inspection recorded

in the maintenance records of that equipment

where may a mechanic find an example of a 100 hour inspection maintenance record entry

FAR part 43

who may rebuild an aircraft engine and grant it zero operating time

the engine manufacturer or agency approved by the manufacturer

what disposition does the regulation require of aircraft records containing the current status of airworthiness directives when an aircraft is sold

the seller shall transfer the records to the purchaser at the time of sale

how long must a record of 100 hour inspections be retained by the aircraft owner

until the work is repeated or superseded, or for one year after the inspection

what could happen to any person who makes or causes to be made a fraudulent or intentionallt false entry in any record or report that is required to be kept

the suspension or revocation of the applicable airmen certificate

who may make a maintenance record entry for approval for return to service after a progresssive inspection is performed, when the aircraft is away from home base

an applicable certificated mechanic; an appropriately rated repair stations; the aircraft manufacturer

what are three states of matter

solids liquids and gases

what is the approximate speed of sound on a standard day at sea level

750 mph

what types of matter are affected by thermal expansion

solids liquids and gases

what is matter

any substance that occupies space and has weight

are liquids compressible


what is the basic formula for computing force, given pressure and area

force equals pressure times area

how is pressure expressed in hydraulics and pneumatics


what type of lever is a wheelbarrow

a second class lever

what is standard day temperature

59 F

what factors determine density altitude

pressure and temperature

what is the term used to describe the ratio of the amount of water vapor actually present in the atmosphere as compared when the air is saturated with water vapor

relative humidity

what direction is pressure transmitted when force is applied to a confined fluid

equally in all direction

what are the three basic parts of all levers

fulcrum, force or effort, and resistance

what are the two factors involved in work

force and movement through a distance

what is the definition of friction

resistance to motion

what are three methods of heat transfer

conduction convection and radiation

what is the condition called when the heat energy of a given gas sample is reduced until motion of the molecules would cease entirely

absolute zero

what is the atmospheric pressure on a standard day at sea level

14.7 psi or 29.92 inches of mercury

what is kinetic energy

energy due to motion

what is a british thermal unit

the amount of heat required to change the temperature of one pound of water one degree F

what does a basic lever machine consist of

a rigid bar free to pivot on or rotate about a point called a fulcrum

what are the four principal forces acting on an airplane in flight

lift weight thrust and drag

what is the angle between the chord line of an airfoil and the direction of the relative wind called

angle of attack

what causes an airplane wing to stall

a stall is caused by the separation of airflow across the top of the wing from the wings upper surface

what effects do the lowering of flaps have on an airplane in flight

increased lift decreased stall speed and increased drag

what change occurs in the flow of air through the main rotor system of a helicopter when transitioning from normal powered flight to autorotation

it is reversed in normal powered flight air is drawn into the main rotor system from above and exhausted down during autorotation airflow enters the rotor system from below as the helicopter descends

how does blade flapping help compensate for dissymmetry of lift in helicopter main rotor systems

blade flapping serves to increase the angle of attack on the retreating blade side of the rotor and decrease the angle of attack on the advancing blade

where are the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes located

CAR part 4b or FAR part 25

what FAR is applicable to the issuance of a type certificate for small reciprocating engine powered aircraft

as listed in aircraft specifications or type certificate data sheets

what FAR prescribed the requirements for the issue of type certificates

FAR part 21

What publication will list the FAR's under which specific aircraft was certificated

FAA specifications and or FAA type certificate data sheet

What current publication would be referred to in order to determine the dimensional serviceability of a specific engine part

engine manufacturers overhaul manual

what are FAA Advisory Circulars

nonregulatory material of interest to the aviation public

when is the summary of AD's published

every other year a summary is published with biweekly updates

are AD's automatically issued to certificated mechanics


how would you determine that the maintenance manual being used is current

contact the manufacturer

on older aircraft for which manuals are not available, what publications could be used to inspect and maintain these aircraft

AC 43.13-1a and FAR section 43.13

what must be used as a guide by a mechanic if he elects to design his own inspection checklist for a 100 hour/ annual inspection

FAR part 43 appendix D

How can a mechanic determine the repair of a damaged wing is major or minor

FAR part 43 appendix A

what is the purpose of AD's

correction of unsafe conditions found in aircraft, engines, propellers, or appliances

what FAA publication is used to notify aircraft owners of unsafe conditions that must be corrected


when must AD's be complied with

the contents of AD's include compliance time or period necessary for corrective action

what publication is used by aircraft manufacturers to notify aircraft owners of design defects and product improvements

service bulletins, service letters, and service instructions

how can you find out if an airplane can be certificated in more than one category

the FAA aircraft specifications or FAA type certificate data sheets

what manual must be used for reference in aircraft maintenance

the current aircraft maintenance manual and or instructions for continued airworthiness provided by the manufacturer

When must a manufacturer's service bulletin be complied with

when it is required by AD's or is listed in the FAA aircraft type certificate data sheet and or aircraft specification

what FAA publication has a list of engines approved for used in a specific model of aircraft

type certificate data sheet, and or FAA aircraft specifications

what publication describes an aircrafts type design and sets forth the limitations prescribed by the applicable code of federal regulations

the aircraft specifications and or type certificate data sheet

who is responsible for ensuring that only the most current information is used when performing any maintenance on an aircraft

the person performing the maintenance

how can a mechanic determine if the repair of damaged wing is major or minor

14 CFR part 43 appendix A

how do subscribers to the summary or airworthiness directives (book 2) receive AD updates

through biweekly supplements

when may a mechanic perform an annual inspection

when the mechanic holds an inspection authorization

upon request to whom must a mechanic present his/her mechanic certificate for inspection

FAA, NTSB, or and federal, state, or local law enforcement officer

What ratings are issued under a mechanic's certificate

airframe and powerplant

what privileges are allowed an airframe mechanic in addition to performing maintenance

perform and approve for return to service, an airframe following a 100 hour inspection

may an airframe mechanic perform maintenance on engines

no, except under the supervision of a powerplant mechanic

what may be used as a guide for 100 hour inspection

FAR part 43 appendix D

what is the duration for a mechanic's certificate

effective until surrendered suspended or revoked

how long is a temporary certificate in effect

120 days

when may a person apply for a mechanic certificate after revocation of his/her certificate

after 1 year unless the order of revocation states otherwise

what must a mechanic do if a temporary certificate is older than 120 days

report to an FAA office for instructions

what privileges are allowed a powerplant mechanic in addition to performing maintenance

perform and approve for return to service, a powerplant following a 100 hour inspection

what maintenance can a pilot perform and what are the limitations

preventive maintenance on his/her own aircraft not used in air-carrier service

what FAR prescribes the certification requirements for a mechanic

FAR part 65

what are the recent experience requirements for a mechanic (3)

worked with FAA approval; for at least 6 months within the preceding 24 months under the privileges of the mechanic certificate; technically supervised other mechanics; supervised maintenance or alteration in an executive capacity; been engaged in any combination of 2,3,or 4

what is the change of address requirement for mechanics

notify the FAA in writing within 30 days

what type of work may a certificated mechanic accomplish on aircraft

perform or supervise maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations

What is the mechanic priviledge limitation associated with instruments

a mechanic may not perform or supervise any repair to, or alteration of, instruments

what may a mechanic approve for return to service

the holder of a mechanic certificate may approve an aircraft, airframe, engine, propeller, or appliance for return to service as provided in FAR part 65

what may a mechanic use as a guide for determining whether a repair is a major repair or a minor repair

FAR part 43 appendix A

What are the privileges and limitations of a certificated mechanic with airframe and powerplant ratings regarding performing major repairs or alterations and approval for return to service

a certificated mechanic with airframe and powerplant ratings may perform major repairs or alterations (except on propellers, and any repair or alteration of instruments) but cannot approve the work done for return to service

What forms of wood, other than solid wood, are used in aircraft

laminated and pluwood

what are the approved types of glues used in aircraft wood structure repair

casein and resin or any glue approved by the manufacturer

what species of wood is used as a standard for strength properties


are hard knots acceptable

yes, within the limitations of AC 43.13-1A

what type of joint is generally used in splicing structural members

scarf joint

how may plywood be prepared for bending

soaking in hot water

what methods are used to apply pressure to wood glue joints

brads, nails, screws, clamps, presses

what area of wood spar may not be spliced

under a wing attachment landing gear engine mount and lift strut fittings

what is the maximum number of splices that should be made to any one spar


what is the minimum temperature for curing wood joints with resin glue

70 F

when are mineral streaks acceptable

when inspection fails to reveal any decay

what method will prevent a patch and a plywood pressure plate from adhering together due to extruding glue from the patch

the use of waxed paper between the patch and pressure plate

why is it necessary to examine all stains and discoloration carefully

to determine whether or not they are harmless, or preliminary, or advanced decay

why are light steel bushings sometimes used in wooden structures

to prevent crushing the wood when the bolts are tightened

what are the results of insufficient gluing pressure

thick glue lines and a weak joint

what type of machine-sewed seams are used

french-fell, folded-fell, and plain overlap

what are organic fibers

cotton and linen

what tow types of fabric are used for covering aircraft

organic and synthetic

what are synthetic fibers

fiberglass and heat-shrinkable synthetic fibers(nylon, orlon, and dacron)

what is a tie-off knot

a standard modified seine know used on all stitches other than the starting stitch

what rib stitching spacing is used when the original spacing is unknown

use char in AC 43.13-1A

what type of fabric is not affected by moisture and mildew


what methods are used to check doped fabric

a punch tester, when results are marginal, a laboratory test is needed

when are anti-tear strips recommended

when the never-exceed speed is in excess of 250 mph

where is surface tape used

sewed seams, lapped edges, rib stitching, and screws

what is the advantage of the envelope method of covering wings

practically all sewing is by machine

what is the maximum permissible deterioration for used aircraft fabric

30 percent of the original fabric strength

what strength of fabric should be used for re-covering an aircraft

high-grade aircraft textile materials at least as good a quality and equivalent strength as those originally used by the aircraft manufacturer

in which direction is the warp and selvage edge of aircraft fabric applied and what identification is usually found on the selvage edge

parallel to line of flight and the tso number is recorded on the selvage edge

what are three methods of applying paint

dipping brushing and spraying

what are two types of dope used for aircraft finishes

Nitrate and butyrate

what are the common types of paint used on aircraft

primers enamel lacquers and epoxies

when spraying acrylic lacquer, what health safety precaution should the mechanic observe

use of an approved respirator

what size and location standards must be used for aircraft registrations marking

as prescribed by FAR part 45

how can a mechanic determine if the control surfaces need to be checked for balance after painting

check manufacturer's service manual and or check with the manufacturer

what is the reason for paint touchup other than appearance

helps to eliminate general corrosion problems

what may cause spray paint sags and runs

too much paint being applied or inadequate surface preparation

what could be result or applying a coat of dope when the temperature of the dope room is too high

pinholes in the dope film

what is the purpose of zinc chromate primer

it serves as a corrosion resistant covering and base coat for protective topcoats

what paint system is compatible with epoxy topcoats

any paint system in good condition

what is the cause for spray painting dust

incorrect air pressure or the distance of the gun from the work

what will cause a blushing paint finish

moisture in the air supply, adverse humidity, or changes in temperature

why should dope not be used over paint or enamel

because it tends to remove such material

what is potting compound used for in bonded honeycomb repair

hole filling

give example of a self plugging mechanical lock rivet

cherrylock or huck

what is done with the rivet head stem when a self plugging (friction lock) rivet is installed

pulled until snapped and trimmed flush with the head

what type of tools are required to install cherrylock rivets

hand or power operated tool equipped with mechanical pulling head

what factors are used to determine setback

radius of bend and thickness of material

what type of weathering damage may be found on metal aircraft


what calculation must be made when bending sheet metal

bend allowance

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