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158 terms

Airframe 2

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how do you find the area of a circle
A= Pi x r2
how do you fine the area of a rectangle
a = length x width
what is the root of a number
a root of a number is one of two or more equal numbers that, when multiplied together, will produce the number
what is the procedure for dividing one fraction by another
invert the divisor and multiply the numerators together and the denominators together
what is a key step to perform in preparing to add or subtract unlike fraction
find their lowest common denominator
what is the procedure for converting a fraction into a decimal
divide the numerator by the denominator
what is the procedure for converting a fraction into a percent
divide the numerator by the denominator, move the decimal point over two places in the quotient, and affix a percent symbol
differentiate between the terms "overhaul" and "rebuilding" as it pertains to aircraft engine maintenance records
overhauled engines must be tested to approved current standards and technical data. Rebuilt engine must be tested to same tolerances and limits as a new item, using new or old parts that conform to new part tolerances and limits or to approved oversize or undersize dimensions.
who may make a maintenance record entry for approval for return to service after a progressive inspection is performed, when the aircraft is away from home base
an applicable certificated mechanic an appropriately rated repair station or an aircraft manufacturer
what could the penalty be for any person who makes or causes to be made a fraudulent or intentionally false entry in any record or repot that is required to be kept
the suspension or revocation of the applicable airmen certificate
when is a maintenance record entry requites to contain the aircraft total time
inspection record entry
what is the minimum scope and detail that the checklist must contain when performing a 100 hour inspection
that which is shown in FAR part 43 appendix D
what systems on a rotorcraft are required to be inspected in accordance with the maintenance manual or instructions for continued airworthiness of the manufacturer concerned when performing an inspection required by FAR part 91
the drive shafts or similar systems; the main rotor transmission gearbox for obvious defects; the main rotor and center sections; the auxiliary rotor on helicopters
name two ways to identify serviceable parts and accessories prior to installation on an aircraft or engine
entry in the maintenance record of that equipment consisting of serviceable tags, PMA tags, maintenance release or FAA form 337
what is the distribution of FAA form 337 after it is completed
one signed copy of the form to the aircraft owner and a copy of that form to the FAA
when a required inspection of an aircraft is performed and defects are found which render the aircraft unairworthy, what maintenance record entries must be made
maintenance records (logbook) and a list of discrepancies furnished to the owner
explain what time in service is in regard to maintenance record entries
"time in service" with respect to maintenance time records, means the time from the moment an aircraft leaves the surface of the earth until it touches it at the next point of landing
what regulation authorizes a certificated mechanic with inspection authorization to approve or disapprove a major repair or major alteration
FAR section 65.95
In addition to the maintenance records, where should a description of a major alteration be recorded
FAA form 337
What entry is required in the aircraft records after maintenance has been performed
a description of the work, date of completion, name of person performing the work, the signature of person approving for return to service, certificate number, and kind of certificate held
Who makes the final maintenance record entry after a 100 hour inspection is completed
the person approving for return to service
where is a 100 hour inspection recorded
in the maintenance records of that equipment
where may a mechanic find an example of a 100 hour inspection maintenance record entry
FAR part 43
who may rebuild an aircraft engine and grant it zero operating time
the engine manufacturer or agency approved by the manufacturer
what disposition does the regulation require of aircraft records containing the current status of airworthiness directives when an aircraft is sold
the seller shall transfer the records to the purchaser at the time of sale
how long must a record of 100 hour inspections be retained by the aircraft owner
until the work is repeated or superseded, or for one year after the inspection
what could happen to any person who makes or causes to be made a fraudulent or intentionallt false entry in any record or report that is required to be kept
the suspension or revocation of the applicable airmen certificate
who may make a maintenance record entry for approval for return to service after a progresssive inspection is performed, when the aircraft is away from home base
an applicable certificated mechanic; an appropriately rated repair stations; the aircraft manufacturer
what are three states of matter
solids liquids and gases
what is the approximate speed of sound on a standard day at sea level
750 mph
what types of matter are affected by thermal expansion
solids liquids and gases
what is matter
any substance that occupies space and has weight
are liquids compressible
no
what is the basic formula for computing force, given pressure and area
force equals pressure times area
how is pressure expressed in hydraulics and pneumatics
psi
what type of lever is a wheelbarrow
a second class lever
what is standard day temperature
59 F
what factors determine density altitude
pressure and temperature
what is the term used to describe the ratio of the amount of water vapor actually present in the atmosphere as compared when the air is saturated with water vapor
relative humidity
what direction is pressure transmitted when force is applied to a confined fluid
equally in all direction
what are the three basic parts of all levers
fulcrum, force or effort, and resistance
what are the two factors involved in work
force and movement through a distance
what is the definition of friction
resistance to motion
what are three methods of heat transfer
conduction convection and radiation
what is the condition called when the heat energy of a given gas sample is reduced until motion of the molecules would cease entirely
absolute zero
what is the atmospheric pressure on a standard day at sea level
14.7 psi or 29.92 inches of mercury
what is kinetic energy
energy due to motion
what is a british thermal unit
the amount of heat required to change the temperature of one pound of water one degree F
what does a basic lever machine consist of
a rigid bar free to pivot on or rotate about a point called a fulcrum
what are the four principal forces acting on an airplane in flight
lift weight thrust and drag
what is the angle between the chord line of an airfoil and the direction of the relative wind called
angle of attack
what causes an airplane wing to stall
a stall is caused by the separation of airflow across the top of the wing from the wings upper surface
what effects do the lowering of flaps have on an airplane in flight
increased lift decreased stall speed and increased drag
what change occurs in the flow of air through the main rotor system of a helicopter when transitioning from normal powered flight to autorotation
it is reversed in normal powered flight air is drawn into the main rotor system from above and exhausted down during autorotation airflow enters the rotor system from below as the helicopter descends
how does blade flapping help compensate for dissymmetry of lift in helicopter main rotor systems
blade flapping serves to increase the angle of attack on the retreating blade side of the rotor and decrease the angle of attack on the advancing blade
where are the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes located
CAR part 4b or FAR part 25
what FAR is applicable to the issuance of a type certificate for small reciprocating engine powered aircraft
as listed in aircraft specifications or type certificate data sheets
what FAR prescribed the requirements for the issue of type certificates
FAR part 21
What publication will list the FAR's under which specific aircraft was certificated
FAA specifications and or FAA type certificate data sheet
What current publication would be referred to in order to determine the dimensional serviceability of a specific engine part
engine manufacturers overhaul manual
what are FAA Advisory Circulars
nonregulatory material of interest to the aviation public
when is the summary of AD's published
every other year a summary is published with biweekly updates
are AD's automatically issued to certificated mechanics
no
how would you determine that the maintenance manual being used is current
contact the manufacturer
on older aircraft for which manuals are not available, what publications could be used to inspect and maintain these aircraft
AC 43.13-1a and FAR section 43.13
what must be used as a guide by a mechanic if he elects to design his own inspection checklist for a 100 hour/ annual inspection
FAR part 43 appendix D
How can a mechanic determine the repair of a damaged wing is major or minor
FAR part 43 appendix A
what is the purpose of AD's
correction of unsafe conditions found in aircraft, engines, propellers, or appliances
what FAA publication is used to notify aircraft owners of unsafe conditions that must be corrected
AD's
when must AD's be complied with
the contents of AD's include compliance time or period necessary for corrective action
what publication is used by aircraft manufacturers to notify aircraft owners of design defects and product improvements
service bulletins, service letters, and service instructions
how can you find out if an airplane can be certificated in more than one category
the FAA aircraft specifications or FAA type certificate data sheets
what manual must be used for reference in aircraft maintenance
the current aircraft maintenance manual and or instructions for continued airworthiness provided by the manufacturer
When must a manufacturer's service bulletin be complied with
when it is required by AD's or is listed in the FAA aircraft type certificate data sheet and or aircraft specification
what FAA publication has a list of engines approved for used in a specific model of aircraft
type certificate data sheet, and or FAA aircraft specifications
what publication describes an aircrafts type design and sets forth the limitations prescribed by the applicable code of federal regulations
the aircraft specifications and or type certificate data sheet
who is responsible for ensuring that only the most current information is used when performing any maintenance on an aircraft
the person performing the maintenance
how can a mechanic determine if the repair of damaged wing is major or minor
14 CFR part 43 appendix A
how do subscribers to the summary or airworthiness directives (book 2) receive AD updates
through biweekly supplements
when may a mechanic perform an annual inspection
when the mechanic holds an inspection authorization
upon request to whom must a mechanic present his/her mechanic certificate for inspection
FAA, NTSB, or and federal, state, or local law enforcement officer
What ratings are issued under a mechanic's certificate
airframe and powerplant
what privileges are allowed an airframe mechanic in addition to performing maintenance
perform and approve for return to service, an airframe following a 100 hour inspection
may an airframe mechanic perform maintenance on engines
no, except under the supervision of a powerplant mechanic
what may be used as a guide for 100 hour inspection
FAR part 43 appendix D
what is the duration for a mechanic's certificate
effective until surrendered suspended or revoked
how long is a temporary certificate in effect
120 days
when may a person apply for a mechanic certificate after revocation of his/her certificate
after 1 year unless the order of revocation states otherwise
what must a mechanic do if a temporary certificate is older than 120 days
report to an FAA office for instructions
what privileges are allowed a powerplant mechanic in addition to performing maintenance
perform and approve for return to service, a powerplant following a 100 hour inspection
what maintenance can a pilot perform and what are the limitations
preventive maintenance on his/her own aircraft not used in air-carrier service
what FAR prescribes the certification requirements for a mechanic
FAR part 65
what are the recent experience requirements for a mechanic (3)
worked with FAA approval; for at least 6 months within the preceding 24 months under the privileges of the mechanic certificate; technically supervised other mechanics; supervised maintenance or alteration in an executive capacity; been engaged in any combination of 2,3,or 4
what is the change of address requirement for mechanics
notify the FAA in writing within 30 days
what type of work may a certificated mechanic accomplish on aircraft
perform or supervise maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations
What is the mechanic priviledge limitation associated with instruments
a mechanic may not perform or supervise any repair to, or alteration of, instruments
what may a mechanic approve for return to service
the holder of a mechanic certificate may approve an aircraft, airframe, engine, propeller, or appliance for return to service as provided in FAR part 65
what may a mechanic use as a guide for determining whether a repair is a major repair or a minor repair
FAR part 43 appendix A
What are the privileges and limitations of a certificated mechanic with airframe and powerplant ratings regarding performing major repairs or alterations and approval for return to service
a certificated mechanic with airframe and powerplant ratings may perform major repairs or alterations (except on propellers, and any repair or alteration of instruments) but cannot approve the work done for return to service
What forms of wood, other than solid wood, are used in aircraft
laminated and pluwood
what are the approved types of glues used in aircraft wood structure repair
casein and resin or any glue approved by the manufacturer
what species of wood is used as a standard for strength properties
spruce
are hard knots acceptable
yes, within the limitations of AC 43.13-1A
what type of joint is generally used in splicing structural members
scarf joint
how may plywood be prepared for bending
soaking in hot water
what methods are used to apply pressure to wood glue joints
brads, nails, screws, clamps, presses
what area of wood spar may not be spliced
under a wing attachment landing gear engine mount and lift strut fittings
what is the maximum number of splices that should be made to any one spar
two
what is the minimum temperature for curing wood joints with resin glue
70 F
when are mineral streaks acceptable
when inspection fails to reveal any decay
what method will prevent a patch and a plywood pressure plate from adhering together due to extruding glue from the patch
the use of waxed paper between the patch and pressure plate
why is it necessary to examine all stains and discoloration carefully
to determine whether or not they are harmless, or preliminary, or advanced decay
why are light steel bushings sometimes used in wooden structures
to prevent crushing the wood when the bolts are tightened
what are the results of insufficient gluing pressure
thick glue lines and a weak joint
what type of machine-sewed seams are used
french-fell, folded-fell, and plain overlap
what are organic fibers
cotton and linen
what tow types of fabric are used for covering aircraft
organic and synthetic
what are synthetic fibers
fiberglass and heat-shrinkable synthetic fibers(nylon, orlon, and dacron)
what is a tie-off knot
a standard modified seine know used on all stitches other than the starting stitch
what rib stitching spacing is used when the original spacing is unknown
use char in AC 43.13-1A
what type of fabric is not affected by moisture and mildew
fiberglass
what methods are used to check doped fabric
a punch tester, when results are marginal, a laboratory test is needed
when are anti-tear strips recommended
when the never-exceed speed is in excess of 250 mph
where is surface tape used
sewed seams, lapped edges, rib stitching, and screws
what is the advantage of the envelope method of covering wings
practically all sewing is by machine
what is the maximum permissible deterioration for used aircraft fabric
30 percent of the original fabric strength
what strength of fabric should be used for re-covering an aircraft
high-grade aircraft textile materials at least as good a quality and equivalent strength as those originally used by the aircraft manufacturer
in which direction is the warp and selvage edge of aircraft fabric applied and what identification is usually found on the selvage edge
parallel to line of flight and the tso number is recorded on the selvage edge
what are three methods of applying paint
dipping brushing and spraying
what are two types of dope used for aircraft finishes
Nitrate and butyrate
what are the common types of paint used on aircraft
primers enamel lacquers and epoxies
when spraying acrylic lacquer, what health safety precaution should the mechanic observe
use of an approved respirator
what size and location standards must be used for aircraft registrations marking
as prescribed by FAR part 45
how can a mechanic determine if the control surfaces need to be checked for balance after painting
check manufacturer's service manual and or check with the manufacturer
what is the reason for paint touchup other than appearance
helps to eliminate general corrosion problems
what may cause spray paint sags and runs
too much paint being applied or inadequate surface preparation
what could be result or applying a coat of dope when the temperature of the dope room is too high
pinholes in the dope film
what is the purpose of zinc chromate primer
it serves as a corrosion resistant covering and base coat for protective topcoats
what paint system is compatible with epoxy topcoats
any paint system in good condition
what is the cause for spray painting dust
incorrect air pressure or the distance of the gun from the work
what will cause a blushing paint finish
moisture in the air supply, adverse humidity, or changes in temperature
why should dope not be used over paint or enamel
because it tends to remove such material
what is potting compound used for in bonded honeycomb repair
hole filling
give example of a self plugging mechanical lock rivet
cherrylock or huck
what is done with the rivet head stem when a self plugging (friction lock) rivet is installed
pulled until snapped and trimmed flush with the head
what type of tools are required to install cherrylock rivets
hand or power operated tool equipped with mechanical pulling head
what factors are used to determine setback
radius of bend and thickness of material
what type of weathering damage may be found on metal aircraft
corrosion
what calculation must be made when bending sheet metal
bend allowance
what is done to the damaged area in bonded honeycomb
the damaged area must be removed
what will cause crazing in transparent plastic panels/windshields
stress, improper handling, and harmful solvents
why dimple for flush rivets instead of counter-sink
depends on thickness of sheet
what is the spacing and edge distance for protruding head rivets
edge distance two times the diameter, spacing three times the diameter
determine total length of a solid rivet for installation
1-1/2 diameter greater than total thickness of sheets to be joined
what is the purpose of lightening holes cut in rib sections
reduce weight
what kinds of loads are rivets designed to withstand
shear
describe rivet head markings for a,b,d,ad,and dd rivets
plain (1100) cross (5056) tit (2024) dimple (2117) and double dash (2017)
what must be done when two bends intersect
relief holes are drilled at the intersection