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A peninula in southern Europe that looks like a boot sticking out into the Mediterranean Sea


Europe's highest mountains, in northern Italy


Mountains that run the length of Italy, made it hard to cross from one side to another

Mount Vesuvius

Volcanic mountain in Italy

Physical Features of Italy

Mountains and hills, cities built on hills by rivers


Main city of Italy, built by Tiber River forfresh water and on 7 hills, for defense, plentiful food crops because of climate

Climate of Italy

Like California, warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters, grapes, olives fruits grow there

History of Rome

No records exist, Romans wanted glorious past, told legends of great heroes




Trojan War hero, left Troy after war and settled in Italy, formed alliance with Latins, fought other people of Italy, married daufhter of Latin king, descendants became rulers of Italy


Epic poem written by Virgil that tells story of Aeneas' long and dangerous journey from Troy to Italy

Romulus and Remus

According to legend, twin Brothers, descendants of Aeneas, put in basket in Tiber River to drown, rescued And raised by wolves, adopted by shephard, built city to mark where they were rescued, Remus made fun of Romulus' idea so Romulus killed him and named city Rome after himself, became first king of Rome

Roman kings

7 kings, Romulus was first one, some were not Roman, they were Etruscan, last king was cruel and was over thrown by nobles to form new government, a republic


People who lived north of Rome, before Rome was founded, some were kings of Rome, built temples, sewer, alphabet, numbers

Why Romans wanted to get rid of monarchy

Last Roman king was cruel and had many people killed, including his own advisors

Republic definition

Government where people elect leaders to govern themselves, the US is an example of one

Why Rome was not a democracy

Elected officials were from small group of wealthy and powerful men, they held all power, other people had little or no say in how the republic was run

Dictator definition

Ruler with absolute power

Roman republic

created in Rome in 509 BC, new elections every year so no one got too powerful, not a democracy

Why Rome had dictators

There were difficult wars with other people in the region, Romans were losing and wanted strong leaders

Dictator's term of office

In Rome, they served for only 6 months so they would not abuse their power


Famous Roman dictator, was a farmer, successfully defeated city's enemies, admired because he gave up power, loyal to the republic

American Cincinnatus

George Washington was called this because he would notnrun for 3rd term of office


City in Ohio named after Cincinnatus


Common people, craftspeople, peasants, traders, workers, majority of population, No say in government and wanted change, eventually gained right to participate in government, became traders and rich


Nobles, wealthy powerful citizens, Small minority of population, controlled government since they were the only ones who could be elected, could not be traders

Why Rome changed government

Plebians formed a council and elected their own officials, patricians were afraid Rome would fall apart if 2 groups couldn't coooperate

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