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27 terms

Rome section 1 geography

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Italy
A peninula in southern Europe that looks like a boot sticking out into the Mediterranean Sea
Alps
Europe's highest mountains, in northern Italy
Apennines
Mountains that run the length of Italy, made it hard to cross from one side to another
Mount Vesuvius
Volcanic mountain in Italy
Physical Features of Italy
Mountains and hills, cities built on hills by rivers
Rome
Main city of Italy, built by Tiber River forfresh water and on 7 hills, for defense, plentiful food crops because of climate
Climate of Italy
Like California, warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters, grapes, olives fruits grow there
History of Rome
No records exist, Romans wanted glorious past, told legends of great heroes
Legends
Stories
Aeneas
Trojan War hero, left Troy after war and settled in Italy, formed alliance with Latins, fought other people of Italy, married daufhter of Latin king, descendants became rulers of Italy
Aeneid
Epic poem written by Virgil that tells story of Aeneas' long and dangerous journey from Troy to Italy
Romulus and Remus
According to legend, twin Brothers, descendants of Aeneas, put in basket in Tiber River to drown, rescued And raised by wolves, adopted by shephard, built city to mark where they were rescued, Remus made fun of Romulus' idea so Romulus killed him and named city Rome after himself, became first king of Rome
Roman kings
7 kings, Romulus was first one, some were not Roman, they were Etruscan, last king was cruel and was over thrown by nobles to form new government, a republic
Etruscan
People who lived north of Rome, before Rome was founded, some were kings of Rome, built temples, sewer, alphabet, numbers
Why Romans wanted to get rid of monarchy
Last Roman king was cruel and had many people killed, including his own advisors
Republic definition
Government where people elect leaders to govern themselves, the US is an example of one
Why Rome was not a democracy
Elected officials were from small group of wealthy and powerful men, they held all power, other people had little or no say in how the republic was run
Dictator definition
Ruler with absolute power
Roman republic
created in Rome in 509 BC, new elections every year so no one got too powerful, not a democracy
Why Rome had dictators
There were difficult wars with other people in the region, Romans were losing and wanted strong leaders
Dictator's term of office
In Rome, they served for only 6 months so they would not abuse their power
Cincinnatus
Famous Roman dictator, was a farmer, successfully defeated city's enemies, admired because he gave up power, loyal to the republic
American Cincinnatus
George Washington was called this because he would notnrun for 3rd term of office
Cincinnati
City in Ohio named after Cincinnatus
Plebians
Common people, craftspeople, peasants, traders, workers, majority of population, No say in government and wanted change, eventually gained right to participate in government, became traders and rich
Patricians
Nobles, wealthy powerful citizens, Small minority of population, controlled government since they were the only ones who could be elected, could not be traders
Why Rome changed government
Plebians formed a council and elected their own officials, patricians were afraid Rome would fall apart if 2 groups couldn't coooperate