66 terms

Male & Female Pelvic Viscera - Week 7

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under
the pelvic ureter is crosses (over/under) the uterine vessels/ductus deferens
flap
there is a ___valve which prevents reflux of urine in the bladder from the ureter
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
apex, body, fundus (base), neck
What are the 4 parts of the bladder?
anterior
When full, the _____surface of the bladder elevates and is not touching peritoneum so suprapubic punctures can be performed to aspirate uncontaminated urinary bladder.
uterovesical, rectovesical
the posterior reflections of the peritoneum onto the uterus is known as the _____pouch in females or as it reflects on to the rectum the ______pouch in males.
retropubic space
loose connective tissue filled space between symphysis pubis and anterior wall of bladder; used in prostectomy to approach prostate gland in suprapubic approach
paravesical, pararectal
the ____fossae on both sides of the bladder or _____fossae on both sides of rectum are potential spaces which allow for distension when then the rectum or bladder are full
rugae
when empty, the mucosa of the bladder is folded forming ______.
trigone, mesonephric duct
____is smooth triangular region of bladder inside the fundus which does not form rugae even when bladder is empty. it is derived from the _____
interureteric fold (crest)
ridge extending between orfices of the ureters which can be useful during cystoscopy to find the ureters
uvula, benign prostatic hyperplasia
____is the median ridge at inferior angle of trigone near internal urethral orfice which becomes prominent with aging due to ____which may lead to bladder outlet obstruction.
superior and inferior vesical, superior vesical and vaginal
the _____&_____arteries supply the bladder in males while the ___&____arteries are the supply in females.
perineal branch of pudendal nerve
What is the innervation of the external urethral sphincter (sphincter urethrae)?
sympathetic, parasympathetic
to relax the sphincter vesicae for urination, the _____nervous system inhibits the ____nervous leading to relaxation
detrusor muscle always relaxed and internal sphincter always contracted = no voiding urine
What would be the impact on urination if parasympathetic (S2-S4) were damaged?
detrusor muscle always contracted and internal sphincter always relaxed = no urine storage
What would be the impact on urination if sympathetic (L1-L2) were damaged?
vesical, sacral splanchnic (L1-L2), pelvic splanchnic (S2-S4), nerve erigentes
the ____ plexus innervates the bladder. it receives sympathetic innervation from ____nerves and parasympathetic innervation from ____nerves known as _____.
rectosigmoid, anorectal, rectal ampulla
the rectum begins at the ____junction and ends at the _____junction. it has a dilated lower end known as the ____which is a temporary storage site for fecal material.
sacrum, coccyx, puborectalis
the sacral flexure of the rectum is a dorsal bend following concavity of ____&____. the perineal flexure is caused by the sling of the ____muscle around the rectum (rectal sling).
puborectalis
contraction of the ____causes angle of perineal flexure to increase promoting anal continence
superior rectal, middle rectal, inferior rectal; space for colon gas to pass and act as shelves to hold fecal matter above anus
What are the 3 transverse rectal folds? What is there function?
upper 1/3 (pararectal fossa on both sides), middle 1/3, lower 1/3
only the _____of the rectum is completely covered by peritoneum. the ____has some coverage, while the ____has no peritoneal coverage.
pectinate line, anorectal ring
anatomically the anal canal begins at the ____, but surgically the division is the _____to the anus.
perineal and inferior rectal branches of pudendal nerve, branch of s4
What is the innervation of the external anal sphincter?
superior rectal (inferior mesenteric), right and left middle rectal (posterior internal iliac), right and left inferior rectal (anterior internal iliac), median sacral (aorta)
What is the blood supply of the rectum?
submucosal plexus, above, light red
internal hemorrhoids are dilations of the _____and lies (below/above) the pectinate line; bleeding from this area has a ______ color
subcutaneous veins, below, dark red
external hemorrhoids are varicosis of the ______which are found (above/below) the pectinate line under the perianal skin; bleeding from this area has _____color
orchitis
inflammation of the testis
cryptorchism
failure of descent of the testis into the scrotum
testicular, pampiniform plexus, testicular
the ____artery supplies the testis while the ____drains in to the testicular vein. the innervation is a ____plexus on the testicular artery.
seminiferous tubules, tubuli recti, rete testes, efferent ductules, epididymis, ductus deferens, ampulla of ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, penile urethra
trace the path of sperm from seminiferous tubules to penile urethra.
seminal colliculus
the ejaculatory duct opens into the prostatic urethra on the _____lateral to the prostatic utricle
ejaculatory duct, prostatic
the duct of the seminal vesicles joins the ductus deferens to form the _____which opens into the ____urethra at the base of the prostate.
rectopubic, rectoprostatic
the prostate is separated from the pubis symphysis by loose CT of the ____and from the rectum by the ______septum.
anterior, median, right and left lateral, posterior
What are the lobes of the prostate?
anterior
fibromuscular lobe of prostate anterior to the urethra
median
prostate lobe between ejaculatory duct and urethra forming uvula of bladder; enlargement of this lobe blocks urine passage as men age
right and left lateral
prostate lobes on either side of the urethra which form the largest portion of the gland
lateral, median
Which prostate lobes are associated with carcinoma? Which with benign prostatic hyperplasia?
posterior
prostate lobe posterior to urethra and inferior to ejaculatory ducts; palpated during digital rectal exam
ovarian fossa
in nulliparous women, the ovaries lie in the ____between external iliac artery, ureter, and obliterated umbilical artery. their location varies in parous women.
suspensory
_____ligament suspends the ovary from the lateral wall of the pelvis and contains the ovarian blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
ovarian
_____ligament extends from the ovaries to the tubal angle on the uterus and is accompanied the ovarian branch of uterine artery
mesovarium
part of the broad ligament of the uterus that suspends the ovary from the broad ligament
ovarian artery, ovarian branch of uterine artery
What is the blood supply of the ovary?
tubal branches of uterine and ovarian arteries
What is the blood supply of the fallopian tube?
uterine horns, uterine cavity; fundus, isthmus
the body of the uterus contains the ____&____ and is composed of the 2 parts: _____&_____.
anteverted (90), anteflexed (170)
What is the normal position of the adult, non-pregnant uterus?
retroflexion
condition in which uterus is bent backwards at uterus; associated with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility, spontaneous abortion, and backache
broad
_____ligament attaches the uterus to the lateral wall of the pelvis
mesosalpinx, mesovarium, mesometrium
What are the 3 parts of the broad ligament?
uterine tubes
the meosalpinx part of the broad ligament invests and supports the _____.
ovary
the mesovarium part of the broad ligament suspends the ____.
mesometrium
part of broad ligament inferior to the mesovarium attaching the body of the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall
parametrium
layer of loose connective tissue with few smooth muscle fibers (part of visceral pelvic fascia) between supravaginal part of the cervix and the bladder extending laterally between the layers of the broad ligament forms the _______
ovaries, uterine tubes and ligaments
What are the components of uterine adnexa?
round ligament
What maintains the anteverted position of the uterus?
transverse cervical ligament
thickened part of the visceral pelvic fascia in the region of the cervix and vagina, that attaches the uterus to the wall of the lesser pelvis
uterosacral ligament
part of the thickened visceral pelvic fascia attaching the uterus to the sacrum and rectum.
uterine artery, uterovaginal plexus
What blood vessel supplies the uterus? What is its innervation?
fornix, rectouterine
___is the recess between vaginal part of cervix and walls of vagina. the posterior side is deepest and associated with_____pouch.
anterior, posterior, right and left lateral
What are the 4 fornices of the vagina?
hymenal caruncles
small rounded elevated remnants of the hymen after its rupture
vaginal branch of uterine artery, 2-3 vaginal branches of internal iliac, artery of bulb of vestibule from internal pudendal
What is the blood supply of the vagina?
upper 3/4 uterovaginal plexus, lower 1/4 pudendal
What is the innervation of the vagina?