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22 terms

Ch 6 Chemistry (Pearson)

Ch 6 The Periodic Table
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periodic law
the law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements
metal
any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.; found to the left of the zig zag line on Periodic Table
nonmetal
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity; found to the right of the zig zag line on the Periodic Table
metalloid
an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals; found along the zig zag line on the Periodic Table
alkali metals
the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)
alkaline earth metals
An element in Group 2 of the periodic table
atomic radius
size of the atom from center to edge; increases from top to bottom and decreases from left to right on the Periodic Table
halogens
the elements of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)
noble gas
an element in group 18 of the periodic table
representative elements
Elements from groups 1, 2, and 13-18 in the modern periodic table, possessing a wide range of chemical and physical properties; Outermost s or p sublevel is only partially filled.
transition metals
elements in groups 3 - 12 in the periodic table, all of which are metals; they form colored compounds in solution
inner transition metals
an element in the lanthanide or actinide series; the highest occupied s sublevel and nearby f sublevel of its atoms generally contain electrons
atomic radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
ionization energy
the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
family
Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called a group
group
Vertical column of elements in the periodic table; also called a family
valence electron
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
cation
an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons
anion
ion with a negative charge produced by gaining one or more electrons