28 terms

Chapter 16: Circulatory System

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cardiovascular system
Also known as the circulatory system which consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
heart
a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
heart muscle
myocardium (heart muscle) is striated, branched and involuntary.
atrium
upper chamber which receives blood that comes into the heart.
pacemaker
group of heart cells which sends out signals that make the heart muscle contract.
ventricle
lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart.
valve
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward found in the heart and veins.
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart; thick with smooth muscle
capillaries
tiny, narrow vessels (a single cell thick) which allow molecules to diffuse into and out of cells into blood stream.
aorta
the largest artery in the body; receives oxygenated blood from the left ventricle.
coronary arteries
vessels which carry blood to the heart itself.
diffusion
the process of molecules moving from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.
veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart; have valves; thin smooth muscle
blood pressure
force exerted by blood on artery walls.
plasma
liquid part of the blood; made of 90% water; proteins and molecules give it yellowish color
red blood cells
take up oxygen in the lungs and deliver it elsewhere in the body
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in RBCs that binds to oxygen
white blood cells
body's disease fighters
platelets
cell fragments that play an important part in blood clotting
cell surface markers
determine blood type and type of blood you can safely receive in transfusion.
lymphatic system
network of vein like vessels that returns the fluid to the bloodstream
lymph
fluid containing water, white blood cells and dissolved materials such as glucose
lymph nodes
filter lymph and trap bacteria
atherosclerosis
a condition in which an artery wall thickens from a build up of fatty materials.
stroke
caused by a blockage in blood vessels surrounding the brain.
heart attack
occurs when blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked; heart cells die due to lack of oxygen and nutrients.
hypertension
a disorder in which a person's blood pressure is consistently higher than normal (greater than 140/90).
cardiovascular health
maintained by a healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking.