Upgrade to remove ads
Skelton notes 12 & 14
Terms in this set (81)
Soil is eroding faster than it is building in -----% of croplands
2 harmful impacts of soil degradation
1. Loss of soil fertility
2. Eroded soil particles end up in waterways.
What reduces soil erosion and restores fertility?
Stair steps, series of broad wide steps
Farming across slope of land, plowing planting across
Alternating different crops, usually row crops and cover crops
Trees, barriers that protect against wind
Alternating crops from field to field. Plant different crops, flipping nitrogen fixers (legumes) with non nitrogen fixers
What is used to weigh soil down?
When did dust bowl occur?
States dust bowl occured in
Oklahoma, Colorado, Texas, Arizona
Why did dust bowl occur?
Poor farming practices
Took away topsoil
Light degree of drought, mixed with human activities
Used to fix dust bowl problem
1935- soil conservation act. Monitored soil health
What established strategy for decreasing soil erosion and pardoned farmers?
1985 Food Security Act (Farm act)
What monitored soil and water?
1977 soil and water conservation acts
Human nutritional requirements
Calories that contain protein, carbs, fats and minerals
Ongoing condition suffered by people who can't grow or buy enough food to meet basic needs.
Symptoms of chronic undernutrition
Mental retardation, suffering of diseases
2 types of malnutrition
Deficiency of protein and other nutrients
Symptoms of marasmus
Pertrudant abdoman and anemic
Form of malnutrition that occurs from lack of protein in diet
Symptoms of kwashiorkor
Liver and anemic
Food energy isn't used, causing excess weight
Typs of agriculture
How much of all farming is industrialized ag?
Involves cash crops, underdeveloped countries. Decreases biodiversity in tropical areas
Involves growing what one needs for themselves without any left for sale
Traditional subsistence farming
High animal labor, fertilizer increase, water, some left for market and family
How many people practice traditional ag?
3 characteristics of green revolution:
1. Develop and plant monocultures
2. High input farming
3. Multiple cropping
Name of person involved in green revolution
Cutting down of essential tree, increase habitat, filter air, provides oxygen, cycling of matter
What is goal of irrigation?
Increase yields, reduces soil erosion, if surface used the right way, drip irrigation prevents evaporation
Precision ag, uses methods like GPS and GIS
What % of trees are good for production?
What % of old growth forest are typically uncut and undisturbed?
What type of fire is prescribed by humans with goal of managing habitat?
What are national forests managed by?
U.S. forest service
What does national forests allow?
Some permits to cut
What does overgrazing cause?
Soil erosion, desertification, and soil compaction
Cutting down trees
How much land is impacted by desertification?
Desertification isbehrn land falls ------- % or more.
Examples of how to manage rangeland:
Rotate livestock, nutriantive feed, control # of grazing animals, mechanical control, prescribed burns, replant in baron areas
Fed. government controls -------% of rangeland in U.S.
During industrialization people move to city; preorganized arrangement of a city; better prepared for large # of people
Between 1800-2008 % increase into urban areas
Growth of low density development of cities and towns; eliminates ag land
Where do most people live?
Example of car centered nation
With only ------% of people U.S. uses -------- cars
When was U.S. federal highway system set up by and by who?
1956- Dwight Eisenhower
U.S. uses -------% of world's gas
Ecosystem impact of transportation
Habitat fragmentation, declines biodiversity, edge effect
Approx. ------% U.S. land used for public and national use
How many natural parks are there?
How many wildlife refuges are there?
500 managed by fish and wildlife refuge
4 land conservation options
Protect, monitor, BMP
Reduce, lessen alleviate
Reclaim/ recover back to natural state
Name some sustainable land- use strategies
Terracing, windbreaks, integrated pest management
Naturally occurring material in or on earth's crust that can be extracted and processed into useful materials at an affordable cost.
2 types of mineral extraction
Surface and subsurface
What percent of nonfuel mineral and coal extraction is surface?
6 Environmental effects of mining
1. Scarring and disruption of land
2. Habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity
4. Toxin laced land
5. Acid mine drainage
6. Emission of toxic chemical
What allowed for large amounts of land and encouraged people to venture to Midwest?
General U.S mining law of 1872
Collapse of land above or beneath where mines are
Waste that is moved away or put somewhere else
5 types of pesticides
Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, fumigants, rodenticide
Advantages of pesticides
Increases food supply
Works better than alternatives
Disadvantages of pesticides
Threaten human/animal lives
Gets into soil and water
How can integrated pest management become more efficient?
Variety of different methods and alternating methods of control
Growing more than 1 species
First law, helped consumer protection, set quality for use of chemicals, didn't prevent harm of environment
Insecticide act 1910
Gave EPA control and approval commercial pesticides
Federal Insecticide Fungicide Rodenticide 1947. Ameneded 1972
Who was food quality protection act established by and when?
Bill Clinton 1996
What reinforced protection of infants and children with respect to pesticide use
Food quality protection act
Governs pesticides to reduce risks of cancers from pesticides
Food drug administration
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APES Food, Soil Conservation and Pest Management
APES Chapter 12
APES Chapter 19
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Unit 1 Italian
Chapter 1 Accounting
ASL Culture Notes