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Biology 101 Ch 3

Molecules of cells
STUDY
PLAY
What are the Properties of Carbon Based Life
Molecules?
Elemental carbon has 6 protons; 6 neutrons; and 6
electrons. This makes carbon uniquely well suited
to be the atom of life on earth.
Organic molecules contain carbon that is covalently bonded to what other atoms
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Hydrocarbon
Carbon chain or ring molecules that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen. Skeleton or Backbone
Isomers
Two molecules with the same chemical formula but different shapes
Functional Groups
Bonded carbon with other groups of molecules
Monomers
Smaller building block molecules
Polymers
Larger units made of monomers
Macromolecules
Giant molecules made from polymers
4 Categories of Macromolecules
Carbohyrdates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
Carbohydrates
Polymers made of sugar monomers (often glucose)
Lipids
Made of two different monomers, Fatty acids and glycerol
Proteins
Polymers made of Amino Acid monomers
Nucleic Acids
Polymers made of Nucleotied Monomers
Dehydration synthesis
Way of linking monomers together- removal of water
Hydrolysis
Way of separating monomers - Breaking by adding water
Monosaccharides
Building block of carbohydrates - Each glucose monomer
Characteristics of sugars
They all have carbonyl group and hydroxyl group
Fructose
Another Monosaccharide
Disaccharides
Two monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis
Glucose + fructose =
Sucrose (table sugar)
Hydrophobic
insoluble in water (lipids)
Hydrophillic
Water loving (carbohydrates)
Glycerol
Symmetrical and therefore non-polar
Fatty acids
Long chains of mostly carbon and hydrogen.
Triglycerides
Lipids that have 3 identical fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule
Phosholipids
Have glycerol backbone with one or more fatty acid chains and one or more chains with phosphorous.
Omega 3 Fatty acids
Crucial role in brain function
Steroids
Lipids with 4 ring forms attached to glycerol backbone - 3 are 6 cornered rings
Peptide bond
Bond between 2 amino acids
Polypeptide
Molecule consisting of many amino acids peptide bonded to each other
Examples of Proteins
Enzymes, hair, nails, claws, beaks, hooves, hemoglobin, antibodies
Protein Properties
*Amino acid sequence
*Shape of the macromolecule
*Presence of more than one Chain
*Addition of any inorganic molecules
Hierarchy of Protein Structure
*Primary Structure
*Secondary Structure
*Tertiary Structure
*Quaternary Structure
Primary structure of Proteins
Amino Acid (AA) sequence
Secondary structure of Proteins
Coiling or folding of AA sequence
Tertiary Structure of Proteins
Three dimensional shape of AA sequence
Quaternary structure of Proteins
Relationship of multiple chains
Nucleic Acid
DNA
RNA
Nucleotides
Monomer units of nucleic acids

Linked by dehydration synthesis
Nitrogenous Bases
Adenine
Thymine (only in DNA)
Cytosine
Guanine
Uracil (Only in RNA)
"Upright" part of DNA
made of Phosphate covalently bonded to sugar
"Inside of Helix" part of DNA
Hydrogen bonded
Adenosin Triphosphate (ATP)
Organic nucleotide that is unstable