Biology 101 Ch 3

43 terms by RobertRossMartin

Create a new folder

Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Create a free Quizlet account to save it and study later.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Molecules of cells

What are the Properties of Carbon Based Life

Elemental carbon has 6 protons; 6 neutrons; and 6
electrons. This makes carbon uniquely well suited
to be the atom of life on earth.

Organic molecules contain carbon that is covalently bonded to what other atoms

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen


Carbon chain or ring molecules that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen. Skeleton or Backbone


Two molecules with the same chemical formula but different shapes

Functional Groups

Bonded carbon with other groups of molecules


Smaller building block molecules


Larger units made of monomers


Giant molecules made from polymers

4 Categories of Macromolecules

Carbohyrdates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids


Polymers made of sugar monomers (often glucose)


Made of two different monomers, Fatty acids and glycerol


Polymers made of Amino Acid monomers

Nucleic Acids

Polymers made of Nucleotied Monomers

Dehydration synthesis

Way of linking monomers together- removal of water


Way of separating monomers - Breaking by adding water


Building block of carbohydrates - Each glucose monomer

Characteristics of sugars

They all have carbonyl group and hydroxyl group


Another Monosaccharide


Two monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis

Glucose + fructose =

Sucrose (table sugar)


insoluble in water (lipids)


Water loving (carbohydrates)


Symmetrical and therefore non-polar

Fatty acids

Long chains of mostly carbon and hydrogen.


Lipids that have 3 identical fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule


Have glycerol backbone with one or more fatty acid chains and one or more chains with phosphorous.

Omega 3 Fatty acids

Crucial role in brain function


Lipids with 4 ring forms attached to glycerol backbone - 3 are 6 cornered rings

Peptide bond

Bond between 2 amino acids


Molecule consisting of many amino acids peptide bonded to each other

Examples of Proteins

Enzymes, hair, nails, claws, beaks, hooves, hemoglobin, antibodies

Protein Properties

*Amino acid sequence
*Shape of the macromolecule
*Presence of more than one Chain
*Addition of any inorganic molecules

Hierarchy of Protein Structure

*Primary Structure
*Secondary Structure
*Tertiary Structure
*Quaternary Structure

Primary structure of Proteins

Amino Acid (AA) sequence

Secondary structure of Proteins

Coiling or folding of AA sequence

Tertiary Structure of Proteins

Three dimensional shape of AA sequence

Quaternary structure of Proteins

Relationship of multiple chains

Nucleic Acid



Monomer units of nucleic acids

Linked by dehydration synthesis

Nitrogenous Bases

Thymine (only in DNA)
Uracil (Only in RNA)

"Upright" part of DNA

made of Phosphate covalently bonded to sugar

"Inside of Helix" part of DNA

Hydrogen bonded

Adenosin Triphosphate (ATP)

Organic nucleotide that is unstable

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set