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Psychology Chapter 3
Terms in this set (45)
the study of the influence of heredity on behavior
behavioral genetics have __ principles
Behavioral genetics principle 1: The relationship between genes and behavior is complex
specific genes play only a small part in causing a behavior. environment also plays a part
traits and behaviors are influenced by many genes
Behavioral genetics principle 2: Usually there is a polygenic influence on traits and behavior because
Behavioral genetics principle 3: The environment can change genes' expression (Epigenetic's)
behavior/environment triggers or stops gene activation (on/off switch) by changing the chemicals attached to the gene (tags) ..... food, drugs, chemicals.... these tags do not change the DNA and the tags can be inherited.
BI-DIRECTIONAL INFLUENCE OF GENES ON BEHAVIOR AND BEHAVIORS ON GENES (nature influences nature, vise versa)
Epigenetic's is the reason for the difference between genotype and phenotype (differences between identical tweens)
Behavioral genetics principle 4: The way to separate the relative contribution of genes and environments is to stay twins and adoptees
there are FOUR types of such studies
Behavioral Genetics: TWIN STUDIES
compare the traits/behavior of a pair of fraternal twins to identical twins. (fraternal twins share 50% of their genes/ identical share 100%)
if genetics determines a trait/behavior, identical twins will be more similar to each other. if the environment determines a trait/behavior, there should be no difference in the similarity of fraternal or identical.
Behavioral Genetics: ADOPTION STUDIES
compare traits/behaviors of adopted kids to their biological and adopting parents. (they share 50% genes with their parents but not the environment) if the environment is more important than genes, adopted kids will be more similar to their adopting parents, if genetics is more important the kids will be more similar to their biological parents.
Behavioral Genetics: TWIN- ADOPTION - STUDIES
because identical twins look and behavior more similar they might also get more similar treatment (environmental influences) solution = compare both types raised together or apart. if the influence of genetics is more important on a given train identical twins will be more similar. if the influence of the environment is more important there should be more similarity between siblings raised together rather than apart (regardless of what type of twin they are)
=Research finding show that genes have more influence than environment for:
Behavioral Genetics: GENE-BY-ENVIONRMENT STUDIES
examines the interaction between genes and environments in influencing traits/behaviors. studies the integration between ppl with different genetic markers and various environments to find who is more sensitive to particular environments. uses genetic information instead of twins. all ppl have all genes, but the genes themselves have different forms. coming the different genes with different environments tells us what influences traits or behaviors.
Estimating the impact of genetic influence (heritability estimate)
Height = 80%
Weight = 60%
Intelligence = 70%
School Achievement= 40%
Central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord.
hold the CNS together (structure, communication,cleaning)
process and transmit information in the nervous system
building blocks of the nervous system, information travels in the dorm of an electrical signal by action potentials, information travels by chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
All other organs
Somatic nervous system
transmits sensory information
autonomic nervous system
serves the internal organs and glands (involuntary organs)
sympathy nervous system
fight or flight response; arousing effect
parasympathetic nervous system
receive incoming sensory information
carry commands for movement
communicate ONLY with other neurons
the cell body of the neuron. contains the nucleus, that contain the genes
extend from the some and transmit the electrical impulse. they are covered by MYELIN SHEATH that insulates the axon.
are the junctions between the axons of one cell and the dendrites of another cell.
are located at the end of each axon and contain the neurotransmitters
are chemicals that transform information between neurons.
(specifically bind with specific receptors)
the sending neuron
the receiving neuron
tiny sacs in the terminal buttons that contain neurotransmitters
The two ways to remove excess neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft
1- Enzymatic degradation
2- Reuptake back to the presynaptic neuron
What do neurotransmitters do?
some create inhibitory effect, devreading the chance that a neuron will fire while others create an excitatory effect, increasing the chance that a neuron will fire.
a way of removing excess neurotransmitter from the synapse in which enzymes specific for that neurotransmitter bind with the neurotransmitter and destroy it.
a way of removing excess neurotransmitter from the synapse, in which excess neurotransmitter is returned to the sending, or presynaptic, neuron for storage in vesicles and future use.
DNA is packed together to form
difference forms of the same genes are called
the functions of neurons in the brain is to
receive, integrate and generate messages
a neurons spiny projections that receive messages from other neurons are called
cocaine blocks reuptake of the neurotransmitter ______, thereby increasing its availability in the synaptic
it will become aggressive
if researchers lesion (cut or destroy) the amygdala of a lab animal
Janet uses which part of her peripheral nervous system to tie her shoe?
fire in the same place that they normally fire when we are doing what the person we are watching is doing
understanding someone else emotions
without mirror neurons we would have a hard time doing :
________neurons probably evolved to help us function as humans
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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