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45 terms

ecology 3

STUDY
PLAY
energy flow
passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem
chemical recycling
transfer of materials within the ecosystem
two main recycled elements
carbon and nitrogen
energy flows through and out of ecosystems while chemicals are
recycled within ecosystems
primary production
sets the energy budget for ecosystems, amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy by an ecosystem's producers
biomass
amount, mass, of living organic material in an ecosystem
going up each level of the food wastes
10-15% of the original energy
pyramid of production
ecological cost of meat
chemicals are cycled
between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs; stockpiled
abiotic reservoirs
air, soil
biogeochemical cycles
chemical cycles involve biotic and abiotic components
carbon cycle
photosynthesis and cellular respiration
phosphorus cycle
weathering of rocks
nitrogen cycle
depends on bacteria
n2 is in the
air
nitrates
are the most readily absorbed form for plants
legumes have
bacteria on their root nodules that allow n2 to be converted to nitrates
decomposition
releases NH4+ from organic compounds and nitrifying bacteria use that form
humans and nitrogen cycle
add more nitrogen to the cycle
crop rotation
helps put nitrogen back into the soils lowering the level of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers
eutrophication
increasing growth of producers, lower species diversity, produces larges algal blooms
because of too much algal bloom,
less oxygen available in the water, body of water becomes stagnant with animals dying of suffocation
sustainability
developing, managing, and conserving Earth's resources in ways that meet the needs of people today without compromising future generations
biophilia
our fear of our sense of connection to nature; E.O. Wilson
destroyed coral reefs
20% destroyed; 15% in danger of collapse
single population of a species loss
extirpation
extinction
all populations of a species have disappeared; irreversible
reduction in genetic variation
threatens survival of species
genetic variation
raw material of microevolution and adaptation to the environment
threats to biodiversity
habitat loss, invasive species, overharvesting, pollution, climate change
ozone depletion
in upper hemisphere; letting in more harmful UV rays; caused by release of harmful chemicals
biological magnification
increased concentration of certain harmful chemicals as they pass through the food chain; top level predators most hurt
rising concentrations of greenhouse gases
Co2, CH4, and N2O; temperatures have risen 0.8 degrees C over the last 100 years; warming over the land is greater than water
ocean temperatures
also rising affecting ocean life reproduction
evidence
rising temperatures, unusual precipitation patterns, extreme weather patterns and melting ice
photosynthesis
removes CO2 from atmosphere and builds a food molecule
cellular respiration
breaks down sugar molecule and releases CO2 and energy into the air
ocean absorbing
too much CO2 making it acidic which affects animals that make shells
conservation biology
seeks to understand and counter the loss of biodiversity
movement corridors
narrow strips of high quality habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches
biodiversity hot spots
relatively small areas that have a large number of endangered and threatened species
endemic species
not found anywhere else
zoned reserves
extensive regions of land that include areas undisturbed by humans
ecotourism
travel to natural areas for tourism and recreation
restoration ecology
develop methods of returning degraded areas to their natural state