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energy flow

passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem

chemical recycling

transfer of materials within the ecosystem

two main recycled elements

carbon and nitrogen

energy flows through and out of ecosystems while chemicals are

recycled within ecosystems

primary production

sets the energy budget for ecosystems, amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy by an ecosystem's producers


amount, mass, of living organic material in an ecosystem

going up each level of the food wastes

10-15% of the original energy

pyramid of production

ecological cost of meat

chemicals are cycled

between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs; stockpiled

abiotic reservoirs

air, soil

biogeochemical cycles

chemical cycles involve biotic and abiotic components

carbon cycle

photosynthesis and cellular respiration

phosphorus cycle

weathering of rocks

nitrogen cycle

depends on bacteria

n2 is in the



are the most readily absorbed form for plants

legumes have

bacteria on their root nodules that allow n2 to be converted to nitrates


releases NH4+ from organic compounds and nitrifying bacteria use that form

humans and nitrogen cycle

add more nitrogen to the cycle

crop rotation

helps put nitrogen back into the soils lowering the level of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers


increasing growth of producers, lower species diversity, produces larges algal blooms

because of too much algal bloom,

less oxygen available in the water, body of water becomes stagnant with animals dying of suffocation


developing, managing, and conserving Earth's resources in ways that meet the needs of people today without compromising future generations


our fear of our sense of connection to nature; E.O. Wilson

destroyed coral reefs

20% destroyed; 15% in danger of collapse

single population of a species loss



all populations of a species have disappeared; irreversible

reduction in genetic variation

threatens survival of species

genetic variation

raw material of microevolution and adaptation to the environment

threats to biodiversity

habitat loss, invasive species, overharvesting, pollution, climate change

ozone depletion

in upper hemisphere; letting in more harmful UV rays; caused by release of harmful chemicals

biological magnification

increased concentration of certain harmful chemicals as they pass through the food chain; top level predators most hurt

rising concentrations of greenhouse gases

Co2, CH4, and N2O; temperatures have risen 0.8 degrees C over the last 100 years; warming over the land is greater than water

ocean temperatures

also rising affecting ocean life reproduction


rising temperatures, unusual precipitation patterns, extreme weather patterns and melting ice


removes CO2 from atmosphere and builds a food molecule

cellular respiration

breaks down sugar molecule and releases CO2 and energy into the air

ocean absorbing

too much CO2 making it acidic which affects animals that make shells

conservation biology

seeks to understand and counter the loss of biodiversity

movement corridors

narrow strips of high quality habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches

biodiversity hot spots

relatively small areas that have a large number of endangered and threatened species

endemic species

not found anywhere else

zoned reserves

extensive regions of land that include areas undisturbed by humans


travel to natural areas for tourism and recreation

restoration ecology

develop methods of returning degraded areas to their natural state

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