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Qin Dynasty
(221 - 206 BCE)
- shortest dynasty
- King Ying Zheng came into power
- changed his name to Shi Huangdi = first emperor
Qin Shi Huangdi
- ruled legalist government - harsh rules and harsh conquences
- wanted to be the smartesr person; wanted to live forever
- proclaimed his dynasty would last 10,000 generations
- burned all books - except for one copy of each
- burned all books - except for one copy of each people would "check-out" books - that person would disappear eventually
- buried scholars (teachers) alive - 460 scholars died this way
China under Qin's power
- took land away from lords
- claimed all the power
- forced the nobles to move to capital so he could keep an eye on them
- had "spies" working for him
- expanded territory
- to make sure there no revolting, he would tear down city walls, and destroy all they weapons
- forced commoners to work on governemtn projects (Great Wall)
- To control China divided into districts - each had its own governor - report to the Emperor
- all weights and measures became the same
- written language became the sameoral language was different
- rules and punishments were the same
- set up a new money system $$$ gold and copper coins were used
- trade becomes easier; communication improves
- massive building projects helped inify China
Network of roads - connecting the capital to all areas
- water systems improved
- canals built - improved transportation
- irrigation system improved farming some of this system is used today
- wanted to protect his country from invasion
- built Great Wall (extra: Great Wall of China)
- waned to live forever
- paranoid about dying - didn't want to be assassinated
- so slept in a different room every night
- no one knew which room he was in
- he was on his way to a new potion discovery, when he died of natural causes
- he advisors don't want people to know he's dead until he is back at the palace. If the enemy knew the emperor was dead, they might invade. They had to hide the fact they have a dead smelly body. The body was placed in a wagon full of fish; the wagon full of fish enters the palace. They remove the fish, and place the emperor into one of the bedrooms and announce to the people that their emperor was dead.
MEANWHILE . . . a message is sent to the eldest son, Fred, telling him that his father is dead. The second son, Bob, learns about what has happened to his father. Bob goes to Fred and makes up a story telling Fred that he has displeases their father. Fred kills himself, thus making Bob the new emperor. (note: The names have been changed so we can understand the story!) Bob changed his name to Er Shihuangdi, or Second Generation.
Er rules for a few years, and is assassinated. The palace was burned and the last remaining books were destroyed.
Han Dynasty begins to rule.
Terra Cotta Soldiers
- Qin Shi Huangdi's tomb was started when he became emperor.
- exact replica of his palace - same size furniture, same every - thing
- sky, water, stars, plants, made out of jewels
- built a "moat" around place - filled with mercury
- hasn't been excavated yet
- no guarantee that the palace will remain intact - main reason
- cost
- mercury in soil
- Soldiers were discovered in 1974 by accident
- three Chinease farmers were digging a well on the land
- about a mile from tomb
- life size
- every face is unique - believe to be copies of the actual soldiers
- dressed in military uniform - originally in color; overtime paint has faded and disappeared
- weapons originally present - Han Dynasty stole them
- arms, bodies, heads - are hollow
- hands and legs solid clay
- estimated 6,000 soldiers total
- four "pits" - approximately five football fiels long
#1 - most of soldiers are located in horse-drawn chariots
#2 - cavalry; 80 kneeling archers
#3 - command center - officers are found here
#4 - not uncovered yet
- workers were buried alive within pits so that no one know where the soldiers were
Why did Sho do this??
- protection from enemies in the next life
- wanted no one to rob anything from his tomb
When Han Dynasty - they found the soldiers - destroyed the soldiers by knocking them over - set fired to the pits
Great Wall Of China
- started during Qin Dynasty and completed during the Han Dynasty
- rebuilt bu the Ming Dynasty (1300 - 1600's)
- longest graveyard in the world - people worked on the wall and then died and then were buried within the wall
- death occurred due to exhaustion, fatigur, hunger, old age, and illness
- those found sleeping on the job were killed and buried in the wall
- hard labor - farmers and peasants were taken from their jobs and told to work the wall - - gone for many years at a time
- crops and other jobs suffered because of the Wall
- women were there to feed and take care of the men
- can't be seen from outer space
- highest part stands 30' from the ground
- wide enough for 5 horses to run atop the Wall side by side
- about 3,000 miles long; main part is 2,150 miles long
- stretches from the Pacific to Central Asia
- natural breaks in the Wall (mountains)
- took 10 years to build
- worked 24/7 in shifts
- about 400,000 men and boys
- made of stone and earth, covered with brick
- elephants used to haul material
- women were in charge of supplies and provided meals
- signal system - friend or foe (foe means enemy or opponent) approaching, guards on the beacon towers would light fires, use flags, smoke, drums to announce the approaching people