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What is the most important role of fungi in natural ecosystems?


How is the spinal cord like a major telephone line?

communication is like between brain and the body

Sometimes during a physical examination, a doctor performs a "knee-jerk reflex test on the patient. During this reflex test, a sharp rap on the knee causes the muscles in the leg to contract. why do you think this test is important?

It tests the peripheral nervous system. It checks the spinal cord and the reactions in the muscle

Why do larger organisms need a circulatory system?

To bring oxygen and nutrients to every cell and to get rid of carbon dioxide & waste, the organisms need a transportation system for the organs

Why is it better to inhale through your nose than through your mouth?

The nose moistens, filters and warms better than your mouth

Define what tissues do

Tissues are groups of similiar cells performing the same function

Define what organs do

Groups of tissues working together to complex functions

Why do more active people need to consume a diet higher in Calories than do people who get little exercise

The more active people burn more energy than the people the less active people

What are two reasons why eating is important to your body?

1. energy 2. raw material for growth and repair

Why is it important to eat foods that contain water-soluble vitamins every day?

Your body can not store them.

In figure 30-5, what is the digestive process


What does peristalis?

muscles in the walls of the esophagus contract in waves. Each wave pushed the bolus, in front of it o reach the stomach.

in figure 11-6, identify the genotype of the offspring that would be represented by the question mark?


in figure 11-6, identify the phenotype of the offspring represented by the question mark?


in figure 11-7, explain whether the alleles show dominance, incomplete dominance, or co dominance.

It is incomplete dominance

in figure 11-8, list stages in which the cells are 2N and those in which the cells are N

2N, 2N, 2N, N, N, N, N

What process did Griffith identify in the series of experiments with the mice and the bacteria?

bacterial transformation

What happened to the bacteria and the mice in experiment?

The mice died because a permanent transformation in the healthy bacteria occurred from the heat killed bacteria

What do the A, T, G and C stand for in figure 12-2

adanine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine

Who first did the experiments in figure 12-13 and what did they confirm?

Hershey & Chase. They found that DNA is genetic information that is found in genes.

Identify structure F in Figure 13-9. what does it specify

The structure is codon. It codes for alanine, a specific amino acid

What process is illustrated in figure 13-10?

protein synthesis or translation

Identify the structures in figure 13-10

A-nucleus, B-mRNA, C-ribosome, D-tRNA, E-anticodon, F, codon

What is the relationship between codons and anticodons?

they are complementary bases that allow them to pair

How is this relationship important to the structure of protein?

Because the amino acid attached to tRNA, it brings in a specific amino acid base on the codon

What term describes the general type of mutation occurring in A, B, C, D in figure 13-5

chromosomal mutation

Contrast process A and B in figure 13-5

A is deletion and B is duplication

During which prcess in figure 13-5 does a segment of a chromosome become oriented in the reverse direction?

C inverse

In figure 13-5, which process is a translocation

D is translocation

In the karyotype in Figure 14-11, what term is used to describe the pair of chromosomes in each numbered group?

homologous pairs

Which chromosomes in Figure 14-11 are autosomes?


Which chromosomes in Figure 14-11 are are sex chromosomes?


In figurs 14-11, what type of abnormality is this, and how might it have occured?

chromosomal abnormality-there is an extra chromosome during meiosis

In figure 14-13 is individual 2 homozygous or heterozygous for free earlobes?

they are heterozygous because the daughter has attached earlobes

in figure 14-13 how many children of individuals 4 & 5 have attached earlobes


predict the genotype and phenotype of individual 14 in figure 14-13

homozygous recessive-they have attached earlobes

In figure, are an of the descendants of individuals 1 and 2 homozygous for free earlobes


The evolutionary tree in figure 19-6 shows relationships among several mammal species. Which group of modern mammals is the most closely related to elephants

Sirenians, the one they are next to

Which group of animals has existed the longes in figure 19-6, how do you know

artiodactyls, it's the longest branch

what does figure 20-7 show

lytic & lysogenic cycle

which letter in figure 20-7 indicates the stage at which a host cell begins producing new bacteriophages?


Which letter in figure 20-7 indicates the stage at which a bacteriophage injects its DNA into a host cell?


Would you know if there was a mycelium underground if no fruiting bodies were presen?

No because you can't see underground

Which structure shown in figure 21-8 would probably be embedded the the tree's bark?


This diagram shows the structure of a synapse between the axon on one neuron and the dendrite of a neighboring neuron. What causes neurotransmitters to be released?

When an impulse reaches end of an axon, arrives at an axon terminal, the vesicles release the neurotransmitters

in figure 31-7, predict the direction of the impulse.

from axon to dendrite to adjacent neuron

in figure 33-5, identify the four chambers of the heart. Then use them to describe the path through which blood travels in the heart.

right atrium to valve to right ventricle to valves to lungs to left atrium to valve to left ventricle

What type of muscle makes up the organ shown in figure 33-5. why is structure F more muscular that structure G?

myocardium muscle

When you take a deep breath, into which structure in figure 33-6 does air move aver leaving the trachea? Into what organ does the structure lead?

bronci, lungs

When you blow out candles on a birthday cake, which muscular structure in figure 33-6 relaxes


Identify structure E in figure 33-6. Why do you think it is also called a "windpipe"

trachea. air passes to and from lungs

in figure 33-6, what structure is labeled A? What is the role of the delicate network of capillaries that surrounds them?

A-aveoli B bronchioles C diaphragm D bronchi

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