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13 terms

cells exam review

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cell wall
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. The cell wall helps to protect and support the cell. This is found only in plant cells.
cell membrane
This is the barrier that controls what substances come into and out of the cell. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
Nucleus
The nucleus is the "brain" of the cell. There are three parts of the nucleus that are important. The nuclear envelope protects the nucleus. Materials pass in and out of the nucleus through pores. Chromatin is thin strands that contain genetic material, the instructions for directing the cell's function. The nucleolus is where ribosomes are made. Ribosomes are the organelles were proteins are produced, which are very important chemicals in cells. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
Cytoplasm
the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus that hold organelles. It is a clear, thick, gel-like fluid that is constantly moving. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
Vacuoles
water-filled sacs that are the storage areas of cells. Most plant cells have one large vacuole and some animal cells have one.
Lysosomes
these are small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
prokaryotic verus Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic do not have a nucleus, while Eukaryotic does have a nucleus.
How is a cell like a factory?
A cell is like a factory because each organism has its own part and when they all work together they become one major working mass. If they were singular they would never get the job done.
mitochondria
these are rod-shaped structures. They are known as the "powerhouse" of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
endoplasmic reticulum
this is a maze of passageways that carry proteins and other materials from part of the cell to another. This is found in both plant and animal cells.
ribosomes
function as factories to produce proteins. This protein will be transported to the golgi bodies. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
golgi body
receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell. This is found in both animal and plant cells.
chloroplasts
capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell. Chloroplasts make leaves green. This is the cell that produces photosynthesis. This is found only in plant cells.