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104 terms

Chemistry

Terms for End of Year Exam
STUDY
PLAY
Conservation of Mass
matter cannot be created or destroyed
Mass
the amount of matter in an object
Element
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Reactant
element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
Product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others, the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
Balancing
To have an equal amount of atoms on each side of the equation
Subscripts
gives the number of atoms of the element in the compound
Coefficients
small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas in an equation in order to balance it
Polyatomic ions
ions that are made of more than one atom
Metals
One of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny
Metal Activity Series
a ranking of relative reactivity of metals in displacement and other kinds of reactions
Reactive
participating readily in reactions
Electrons
negatively charged particles
Ionic Bonds
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Oxidation
the process of oxidizing, The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
Reduction
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen), Gain of electrons
Redox
a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction
Half Reactions
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
OIL RIG
Oxidation is loss, Reduction is gain
Electrochemical Cell
device that changes chemical energy into electrical energy
Battery
a device that produces electricity
Electrical Circuit
an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow
Solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
Anion
a negatively charged ion
Cation
a positively charged ion
Conduction
the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts.
Charged
Describes an object whose net charge is not zero
Dissolved
state in which solute particles are evenly distributed throughout a solvent
Concentration
the strength of a solution
Zinc/Copper Battery
Used to perform in a single replacement reaction, conducting electricity.
Salt Bridge
A tube that allows the slow transfer of ions and maintains the neutrality of the electrolyte solutions.
Closed Circuit
a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates
Non-rechargeable battery
A battery that cannot be charged
Anode
a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device
Cathode
a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device
Ideal Gas
a hypothetical gas with molecules of negligible size that exert no intermolecular forces
Inverse Relationship
a relationship in which one variable decreases when another variable increases
Direct Relationship
a relationship in which one variable increases with an increase in another variable
Intermolecular Forces
forces of attraction between molecules
Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases
1. atoms move in a straight line
2. atoms rebound with the same amount of energy
3. there are no attractice forces between atoms
4. atoms are so tiny
5. temperature increases; atoms move faster
kPa
kilopascals
mmHg
millimeters of mercury
Standard Temperature and Pressure
for a gas, the temperature of 0 Celsius and pressure 1.00 atmosphere
Atmosphere
the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body
Kinetic Energy
energy due to motion
Boyle's Law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
Charles Law
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
Volume
the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object
Liter
Basic unit of volume in the metric system
Milliliter
a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
Temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
Celsius
Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.
Kelvin
the basic unit of thermodynamic temperature adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
Gay-Lussac's Law
the law that states that the pressure of a gas at a constant volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
Pressure
the force applied to a unit area of surface
Force
(physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity
Constant
a quantity that does not vary
Solubility
the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)
Acid
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
[H+]
hydrogen
Hydrogen Ion Concentration
the number of moles of hydrogen ions per cubic decimeter
Base
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
OH-
hydroxide ion
Hydroxyl Group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Dissociate
to undergo a reversible or temporary breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms
Solution Concentration
quantity of solute dissolved in a specific quantity of solvent or solution
Molarity
concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
pH
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
-log[H+]
the formula for pH
Exponent
a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself
Properties of Acids and Bases
react with one another to produce a salt and water, conduct electricity, change color of indicator
Neutralize
make chemically neutral
Buffer
an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
Hydrological Cycle
cycle of water, the movement of water and its transformation between the gaseous (vapour), liquid, and solid forms.
Non-polar Bond
electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
Ionic Bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
Polar Bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
Advection
(meteorology) the horizontal transfer of heat or other atmospheric properties
Condense
compress or concentrate
Condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Precipitate
fall from clouds
Precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
Salt Water
water that contains dissolved salts and other minerals
Fresh Water
defined as having a low salt concentration (less than 1%). Plants and animals are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are different types of freshwater regions: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and estuaries.
Aquifer
underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc
Ground water
underground water that is held in the soil and in previous rocks
Glacier
an extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers
Natural Minerals
inorganic, with characteristic physical properties
Electronegativity
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
Cohesive
sticking together
Adhesive
a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together
Heat Capacity
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a specified amount of a substance by 1°C or 1 K.
Density
the amount of matter in a given space
Solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
Solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
Soluble
(of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
Fertilizers
A substance spread onto soil to increase its ability to support crops. Fertilizers include organic materials, such as manure, but can also be man made chemicals such as nitrates.
EPA
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Maximum Contaminant Levels
The legal maximum amount of a certain contaminant that is allowed in tap and drinking water.
Percent Concentration By Mass
mass of solute\mass of solution x 100
Composite
made up of different substances or parts
Alloy
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten