any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others, the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
To have an equal amount of atoms on each side of the equation
gives the number of atoms of the element in the compound
small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas in an equation in order to balance it
ions that are made of more than one atom
One of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny
Metal Activity Series
a ranking of relative reactivity of metals in displacement and other kinds of reactions
participating readily in reactions
negatively charged particles
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
the process of oxidizing, The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen), Gain of electrons
a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
Oxidation is loss, Reduction is gain
device that changes chemical energy into electrical energy
a device that produces electricity
an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
a negatively charged ion
a positively charged ion
the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts.
Describes an object whose net charge is not zero
state in which solute particles are evenly distributed throughout a solvent
the strength of a solution
Used to perform in a single replacement reaction, conducting electricity.
A tube that allows the slow transfer of ions and maintains the neutrality of the electrolyte solutions.
a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates
A battery that cannot be charged
a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device
a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device
a hypothetical gas with molecules of negligible size that exert no intermolecular forces
a relationship in which one variable decreases when another variable increases
a relationship in which one variable increases with an increase in another variable
forces of attraction between molecules
Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases
1. atoms move in a straight line 2. atoms rebound with the same amount of energy 3. there are no attractice forces between atoms 4. atoms are so tiny 5. temperature increases; atoms move faster
millimeters of mercury
Standard Temperature and Pressure
for a gas, the temperature of 0 Celsius and pressure 1.00 atmosphere
the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body
energy due to motion
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object
Basic unit of volume in the metric system
a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.
the basic unit of thermodynamic temperature adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
the law that states that the pressure of a gas at a constant volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
the force applied to a unit area of surface
(physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity
a quantity that does not vary
the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
Hydrogen Ion Concentration
the number of moles of hydrogen ions per cubic decimeter
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
to undergo a reversible or temporary breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms
quantity of solute dissolved in a specific quantity of solvent or solution
concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
the formula for pH
a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself
Properties of Acids and Bases
react with one another to produce a salt and water, conduct electricity, change color of indicator
make chemically neutral
an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
cycle of water, the movement of water and its transformation between the gaseous (vapour), liquid, and solid forms.
electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
(meteorology) the horizontal transfer of heat or other atmospheric properties
compress or concentrate
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
fall from clouds
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
water that contains dissolved salts and other minerals
defined as having a low salt concentration (less than 1%). Plants and animals are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are different types of freshwater regions: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and estuaries.
underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc
underground water that is held in the soil and in previous rocks
an extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers
inorganic, with characteristic physical properties
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a specified amount of a substance by 1°C or 1 K.
the amount of matter in a given space
the dissolved substance in a solution
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
(of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
A substance spread onto soil to increase its ability to support crops. Fertilizers include organic materials, such as manure, but can also be man made chemicals such as nitrates.
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Maximum Contaminant Levels
The legal maximum amount of a certain contaminant that is allowed in tap and drinking water.
Percent Concentration By Mass
mass of solute\mass of solution x 100
made up of different substances or parts
a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten