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Chemistry Unit 5

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crystalline solid
a solid substance whose particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating patterns
amorphous solid
a solid substance whose particles are arranged in a random matter
allotropic
describes an element that can exhibit more than one structural form in the same state- solid, liquid, or gas
fluidity
the ability of a substance to flow
surface tension
the strong force or cohesion at the surface of a liquid
viscosity
the ability of a substance to resist flowing
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one kelvin
molar enthalpy of fusion
the amount of heat required to change one mole of a solid at it's melting point to a liquid
molar enthalpy of vaporization
the amount of heat energy required to change one mole of a liquid at it's boiling point and a constant pressure of gas
liquefaction
change of state from a solid to a liquid at or above the melting point
solidification
change of state from a liquid to a solid
change of state from a liquid to a gas (general term)
vaporization
boiling
change of state from a liquid to a gas at or above the boiling point
change of state from a liquid to a gas at temperatures and pressures below the boiling point
evaporation
condensation
change of state from a gas to a liquid
sublimation
change of state from a solid to a gas without first becoming a liquid
deposition
change of state from a gas to a solid without first becoming a liquid
super critical fluid
substance that exists at a temperature and pressure higher than it's critical point
equilibrium
condition in which two opposing changes occur at a equal rate
phase diagram
shows the particular state in which a substance will exist at different conditions of temperature and pressure
triple point
temperature and pressure at which a substance can exist in equilibrium in all 3 states- solid, liquid, and gas
hexagonal
6 rectangular faces with hexagon shapes bases
cubic
each unit cell are all the same distance from each other and are oriented at 90 degree angles
trigonal
particles in each cell form rhombus shaped bases and 4 rectangular faces
particles in each unit cell form square bases and four rectangular faces
tetragonal
particles in each unit cell form rectangular bases, 2 rectangular faces, and 2 faces that are parallelograms
monoclinic
triclinic
particles in each unit cell form bases and four faces with little or no symmetry
equilibrium
two opposing conditions occur at the same rate