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Chemical Equilibrium

Opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates.

Continuous Spectrum

The rainbow of colors containing light of all wavelengths.

Electron Affinity

The energy charge when an electron is added to a gaseous atom.


Emission spectrum. e- move circularly around nucleus.

Quantum Theory

Designed to explain the electronic structure of atoms.

Radiant Energy

Waves of energy travelling through space.

Ionization Energy

Enough energy to eject e- from atoms.


If light has particle properties, does matter have light properties? Used both Planck and Einstein's equations. Greater mass, smaller wavelength.


Uncertainty principle, because of dual nature of electrons, both location and momentum cannot be known.


Developed the wave theory of the atom. Highly mathematical equations describe properties of electrons in atoms. Replaced Bohr model with orbitals.

Electron Cloud

Modern electron model.

Photoelectric Effect

Electrons are ejected from a solid surface when light with radiation shines on it.


Light is like a stream of mass-less particles. Wave-Particle duality.


First to organize periodic table.


Force exerted over a given area. Force measured in Newtons, Pascal is the SI unit for pressure.

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