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Pope Urban II

called for Crusades

King Henry II

common law creator

King Philip IV (Philip the Fair)

Estates General creator; kidnapped the pope

Thomas aquinas

greatest scholastic


established Frankish kingdom


removed last "do-nothing" king; gave church Papal States


Holy Roman Emperor

Pope Julius II

Renaissance pope-patron of the arts

the Medici family

ruled Florence; patrons of the arts


divine comedy


The Prince, "the end justifies the means"

Sir Thomas More



the Perfect Courtier


Praise of Folly

John Calvin

French reformer; Calvanism predestination

Martin Luther

justification of faith; German reformer; "started Reformation"


sold indulgences

Henry VIII

Anglican Church; 6 wives

Ignatius Loyola

founded Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

John Locke

17th century English philosophy; justified Glorious Revolution by his Two Treatises of Government; tabula rasa and Social Contract

Thomas Hobbes

expressed absolutism in his Leviathan-humans=selfish and greedy -->need someone to control them

Michael Romanov

started Romanov dynasty that lasted from 1613-1917


improved telescope; heliocentric universe; planets=have similar substance to earth


world-machine concept; matter and gravity


free-speech advocate


natural education; General Will

rené descartes

"I think therefore I am"

Mary wollstonecraft

wonem's rights; feminism


head of reign of terror


radicals; committee of public safety; Reign of Terror; National Assembly

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