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All of the following are benefits of strength training EXCEPT __________.
it increases cardiorespiratory fitness
Muscles are attached to bones by __________.
A motor unit is __________.
a motor nerve and all of the muscle fibers it controls
Isotonic exercises involve __________.
a muscle contraction in which there is movement of a body part
A concentric contraction __________.
is typically a dynamic contraction that involves a shortening of the muscle while force is produced.
An eccentric contraction __________.
is typically a dynamic contraction that involves a lengthening of the muscle while force is produced
__________ fibers contract slowly and are highly resistant to fatigue.
__________ fibers contract fast and fatigue easily.
__________ is the process of involving more muscle fibers to increase muscle force.
Which test measures muscular endurance?
An increase in muscle size due to training is called __________.
All of the following are safety guidelines when weight training EXCEPT __________.
holding your breath during the lift
The lower the initial strength level, __________.
the greater the initial gains in strength will be
The starter phase of a weight training exercise prescription involves __________.
using light weights and a high number of reps and may last up to three weeks
Which muscle would be exercised to increase upper body strength?
Which exercise(s) would best exercise the gluteus maximus?
lunge and leg press
Which exercise would best exercise the trapezius?
Which of the following fiber types would you most likely find in abundance in the legs of a world-class 100m sprinter?
white muscle fibers
A muscle contraction that involves contracting a muscle against a movable load is called a(n) __________.
There are approximately a number of __________ skeletal muscles in the human body.
The phase in an exercise prescription for weight training that may involve only one workout per week is the __________.
__________ contractions involve a shortening of the muscle while it is producing tension. They are also called positive contractions.
Flexibility is best defined as __________.
the range of motion around a joint
Factors that affect one's range of motion include __________.
the shape of the bones, ligaments, cartilage, and tendons
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of flexibility?
increased risk of injury
The fluid within the joint capsule which helps to lubricate the joint and reduce friction and wear and tear is known as __________ fluid.
Hypokinetic disease is a disease that is associated with __________.
lack of physical activity
__________ are specialized receptors in the muscle or tendon that provide feedback to the brain pertaining to position of the body in space and relative position of body parts.
Beatrice goes to see a personal trainer to help her improve her lower leg and back flexibility. He would most likely do an evaluation using __________.
a sit-and-reach test
A technique used to increase flexibility that involves rapid and forceful bouncing movements is __________.
PNF stretching using the CRAC technique involves __________.
contracting and relaxing the muscle being stretched and the contraction of the antagonist muscle
In relation to other types of stretching, __________.
PNF stretching has been shown to be more effective and safer than ballistic stretching
The progression guidelines for stretching involve __________.
a beginning duration of 15 seconds a stretch and progressing to 30 seconds
Injury prevention guidelines for stretching include __________.
stretching until "mild discomfort" is felt
The alternate stretch, used to reduce the risk of injury, for the knee pull stretch is the __________.
The alternate stretch movement, used to reduce the risk of injury, for the deep knee bend is the __________.
The best time to perform stretching in order to maximize flexibility and decrease risk of injury is __________.
at the end of a workout when the muscle temperature is very high
__________ is the connective tissue that forms a pad on the end of long bones and helps to absorb shock and reduce friction.
__________ is the involuntary contraction of a muscle due to the rapid stretching of the muscle spindles within the muscle.
The stretch reflex
As one is injured or gets older, the result is __________.
increased scarring and functional limitation
__________ are specialized receptors in a tendon that provide information to the brain about the position of body parts.
Golgi tendon organs
If flexibility of the shoulder is assessed as excellent, then __________.
lower body flexibility may be poor or excellent as flexibility is specific to the joint being assessed
Which of the following does not usually require assistance or any type of equipment?
The safe alternative to doing a traditional hands-behind-the-head sit-up is the __________ exercise.
curl-up with arms across the chest
When administering the sit-and-reach test, __________.
allow a warm-up before the assessment begins
__________ is the connective tissue that connects bones to bones.
__________ fat is the specific type of fat that is needed by the body in order for it to function optimally.
Obesity for men is defined as body fat percentage greater than __________.
Obesity for females is defined as body fat percentage greater than __________.
The National Institutes of Health estimates that obesity directly accounts for __________ of deaths in the USA.
__________ is the specific term used to describe a slow increase in body fat over several years.
The relationship between the onset of type 2 diabetes and body fatness can be described as __________.
One of the most common methods used to determine a healthy body weight is __________.
body mass index
Waist-to-hip ratios tell you __________.
whether your body fat is distributed in an unhealthy manner
A skinfold assessment attempts to extrapolate your total body fat by measuring __________ body fat.
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry uses __________ to assess body fat and lean tissue.
To calculate fat-free weight using body fat percentage, __________.
subtract body fat percent from 100 and then multiply that number by the individual's total body weight
On average, how many pounds do college students gain during their first year in school?
Optimal body weight should be based upon __________.
age, sex, and height
Sites for measuring body fat using the skinfold method often include __________.
A method used to determine body fat involving weighing an individual on land and in a tank of water is __________.
__________ is tissue where fat is stored in the body.
__________ is fat stored just beneath the skin.
__________ is fat stored in the abdomen and around the body organs.
__________ is a pattern of fat storage characterized by fat being stored in the abdominal region and upper body.
Current estimates say that what percentage of the US population is overweight or obese?
As one ages, weight gain is usually attributed to __________.
an increase in food intake and a decrease in physical activity
Overtraining syndrome is associated with which of the following?
not enough recovery time between workouts
The signs and symptoms of overtraining syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
To prevent overtraining syndrome, a good rule of thumb is to increase your exercise intensity or duration by no more than __________ over a two-week period.
Which of the following would be considered an extrinsic risk factor?
intensity of activity
Which of the following would be considered an intrinsic risk factor?
The factors most closely associated with exercise-related injuries include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
The most common injury complaint among exercisers is __________.
lower back pain
Guidelines to help prevent back problems include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
when lying down, lie on your back and place a pillow under your lower back
Delayed-onset muscle soreness occurs __________ after an exercise session.
A muscle strain that has only a few muscle fibers torn and full range of motion is possible is known as a __________ degree strain.
A muscle strain that has many muscle fibers torn and may appear as a soft, sunken area in the muscle is known as a __________ degree strain.
One of the most common exercise-related injuries is __________.
A sprain is caused by damage to __________.
One of the most common sites of ligament damage is the __________.
Ligament damage that results in minor instability of a joint and visible minor swelling is classified as a __________ degree ligament injury.
Ligament damage that results in moderate instability of a joint with definite pain, swelling, and stiffness is classified as a __________ degree ligament injury.
Ligament damage that results in major instability of a joint and considerable swelling is classified as a __________ degree ligament injury.
The impact of the foot on the running surface is approximately __________ times the body weight of the runner.
Factors that can predispose an individual to patellofemoral pain syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
A person can reduce the chance of developing patellofemoral pain syndrome by __________.
strengthening the quadriceps
Which of the following will reduce a person's chances of developing a stress fracture?
maintaining flexibility in the back of the legs and hips
When using an ice pack for an exercise-related injury, the ice pack should be applied for __________ periods, __________ a day, for __________ after the injury.
30-minute; 3-4 times; 2 days
A rehabilitation technique that incorporates alternating periods of treatments using ice, exercise, and rest is known as __________,
If a person has stopped breathing or has no heartbeat, the first thing that the responder should do is __________.
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