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Science Vocab

Review of the science vocabulary words for the Mid-term
STUDY
PLAY
theory
explanation of things or events from many observations
scientific law
a rule that describes a pattern in nature
earth science
the study of Earth's systems and nonliving things
observation
a record or description of an occurence or pattern in nature
hypothesis
a reasonable guess that can be tested and is based on what is observed
dependent variable
factor that may change as a result of changes to the independent variable
data
information gathered during an investigation
metal
element that has luster, is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
nonmetal
element that is usually a gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
metalloid
element that shares some properties with both metals and nonmetals
semiconductor
element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal but conducts it better than a nonmetal
noble gas
elements in group 18 of the periodic table
actinide
the second series of intertranistion elements which goes from thorium to lawrencium
chemical bond
force that holds two atoms together
compound
pure substance that contains two or more elements
molecule
neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons
chemical formula
combination of chemical symbols and numbers that indicates which elements and how many atoms of each element are present in a molecule
atom
a small particle that makes up most types of matter
solid
matter with a definite shape and volume
liquid
matter with a definite volume but no definite shape that can flow from one place to another
vaporization
the change from a liquid to a gas
condensation
change of matter from a gas to a liquid state
evaporization
change of matter from a liquid to a gas state starting with the top layer of water
density
mass of an object divided by its volume
Pascal's Principle
states that when a force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
science
systematic way of learning more about the natural world that provides possible explanations to questions and involves using a collection of skills
system
a set of objects or parts that form a whole
physical science
study of matter, which is anything that takes up space and has mass, and the study of energy, which is the ability to cause change
variable
factor that can be changed in an experiment
constant
variable that is not changed in an experiment
prediction
an educated guess as to what is going to happen based on observation
critical thinking
involves using knowledge and thinking skills to evaluate evidence and explanations
transition element
elements in groups 3-12 in the periodic table, all of which are metals
group
family of elements in the perioidic table that have similiar physical or chemical properties
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of a given element
alkali metal
elements in group 1 of the periodic table
halogen
elements in group 17 of the periodic table
lanthanide
the first series of inner transition elements which goes from cerium to lutetium
energy level
the different areas for an electron in an atom
ion
atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost an electron
ionic bond
attraction that holds oppositely charged ions close together
metallic bond
bond formed when metal atoms share their pooled electrons
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
viscosity
a liquid's resistance to flow
energy
the ability to do work or cause change
thermal energy
the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles in a material
temperature
a measure of the average value of the kinetic evergy of the particles in a material
boiling
liquid changes to gas by forming bubbles in the liquid that rise to the surface
bouyant force
upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid
scientific theory
a possible explanation for repeatedly observed patterns in nature supported by observations and results from many investigations
life science
study of living systems and how they interact
technology
use of science to help people in some way
infer
to draw a conclusion based on observation
independent variable
factor that is intentionally varied by the experimenter
controlled experiment
involves changing one factor and observing its effect on one thing while keeping all other things constant
element
a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
period
horizontal row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably
representative element
elements in group 1 and 2 and 13-18 in the periodic table that include metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
mass number
the sum of neutrons and protrons in the nucleus of an atom
alkaline earth metal
elements in Group 2 of the periodic table
catalyst
substance that can make something happen faster but is not changed itself
chemical change
change in which the identity of a substance changes and forms a new substance or substances
electron cloud
area where negatively charged electrons, arranged in energy levels, travel around an atom's nucleas
electron dot diagram
chemical symbol for an element, surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level
covalent bond
chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
polar bond
bond resulting from the unequal sharing of electrons
surface tension
the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
gas
matter that does not have a definate shape or volume; has particles that move at high speeds in all directions
heat
movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher tempurature to a substance at a lower temperature
melting
change of matter from a solid state to a liquid state
freezing
change of matter from a liquid state to a solid state
force
a push or a pull that one object exerts on another
pressure
force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted
Archimedes' principle
states that the bouyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object