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blind spot

at the optic disc. no photoreceptors, so this area of vision is not perceived.


ability to focus differentially for objects of near vision


nearsighted (image focuses in front of retina)


farsighted (image focuses behind retina)

near-point accomodation

method of testing lens elasticity


loss of lens elasticity with old age

visual acuity

sharpness of vision


Blurry vision. Irregular curvatures of lens or cornea.

Rinne test

Compares bone and air conduction. (Side of head)

Weber test

Tests hearing equality on either side. (Top of head)


chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body


organ that responds to a particular hormone

Pineal gland

third ventricle of brain. melatonin. inhibitory effect on sexual maturation.


links the nervous system to the endocrine system


inferior to larynx. thyroid hormone. hyposecretion causes myxedema (mental and physical sluggishness)


posterior surface of parathyroid gland. parathyroid hormone, regulates calcium balance in blood. hyposecretion causes tetany.

adrenal glands

near the kidneys. epinephrine or NE. hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids produces abnormal hairiness.


partially behind the stomach. insulin and glucagon. Hyposecretion leads to diabetes mellitus.


testosterone. hyposecretion inhibits sexual maturation.


estrogen. hyposecretion inhibits sexual maturation.


red blood cells. transport oxygen and carbon dioxide


white blood cells. play roll in immune system.


neutrophils, eosiniphils, basophils


phagocytize bacteria


kill parasitic worms


release histamine and other mediators of inflammation


lymphocytes, monocytes


mount immune response by direct cell attack or antibodies




blood clotting

visceral pericardium

fibroserous membrane closely applied to heart muscle

parietal pericardium

serous membrane surrounding visceral pericardium


cardiac muscle


thin serous endothelium that lines the atria and ventricles

pulmonary circuit

distributes blood to the lungs to unload CO2 and pick up oxygen and returns to the heart

systemic circuit

carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart.

hepatic portal circulation

drain digestive viscera and deliver blood to the liver for processing.

Circle of Willis

looped network of arteries at the base of the BRAIN. supplies blood to the brain.

reflex arc

innervation for a reflex

stretch reflex

postural reflexes that act to maintain posture, balance, and locomotion. initiated by tapping a tendon which stretches the muscle the tendon is attached to. at the same time, antagonist muscles are inhibitted to prevent them from resisting

crossed extensor reflexes

consists of a flexor, or withdrawal reflex followed by extension of the opposite limb

autonomic reflexes

regulate internal body functions, ie. sweating, digestion....

pituitary or hypophysis

tropic hormones and ADH. hyposecretion of ADH results in diabetes insipidus.

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