at the optic disc. no photoreceptors, so this area of vision is not perceived.
ability to focus differentially for objects of near vision
nearsighted (image focuses in front of retina)
farsighted (image focuses behind retina)
method of testing lens elasticity
loss of lens elasticity with old age
sharpness of vision
Blurry vision. Irregular curvatures of lens or cornea.
Compares bone and air conduction. (Side of head)
Tests hearing equality on either side. (Top of head)
chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body
organ that responds to a particular hormone
third ventricle of brain. melatonin. inhibitory effect on sexual maturation.
links the nervous system to the endocrine system
inferior to larynx. thyroid hormone. hyposecretion causes myxedema (mental and physical sluggishness)
posterior surface of parathyroid gland. parathyroid hormone, regulates calcium balance in blood. hyposecretion causes tetany.
near the kidneys. epinephrine or NE. hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids produces abnormal hairiness.
partially behind the stomach. insulin and glucagon. Hyposecretion leads to diabetes mellitus.
testosterone. hyposecretion inhibits sexual maturation.
estrogen. hyposecretion inhibits sexual maturation.
red blood cells. transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
white blood cells. play roll in immune system.
neutrophils, eosiniphils, basophils
kill parasitic worms
release histamine and other mediators of inflammation
mount immune response by direct cell attack or antibodies
fibroserous membrane closely applied to heart muscle
serous membrane surrounding visceral pericardium
thin serous endothelium that lines the atria and ventricles
distributes blood to the lungs to unload CO2 and pick up oxygen and returns to the heart
carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart.
hepatic portal circulation
drain digestive viscera and deliver blood to the liver for processing.
Circle of Willis
looped network of arteries at the base of the BRAIN. supplies blood to the brain.
innervation for a reflex
postural reflexes that act to maintain posture, balance, and locomotion. initiated by tapping a tendon which stretches the muscle the tendon is attached to. at the same time, antagonist muscles are inhibitted to prevent them from resisting
crossed extensor reflexes
consists of a flexor, or withdrawal reflex followed by extension of the opposite limb
regulate internal body functions, ie. sweating, digestion....
pituitary or hypophysis
tropic hormones and ADH. hyposecretion of ADH results in diabetes insipidus.