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43 terms

Anatomy & Physiology 2 Lab (Practical 1)

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blind spot
at the optic disc. no photoreceptors, so this area of vision is not perceived.
accommodation
ability to focus differentially for objects of near vision
myopia
nearsighted (image focuses in front of retina)
hyperopia
farsighted (image focuses behind retina)
near-point accomodation
method of testing lens elasticity
presbyopia
loss of lens elasticity with old age
visual acuity
sharpness of vision
astigmatism
Blurry vision. Irregular curvatures of lens or cornea.
Rinne test
Compares bone and air conduction. (Side of head)
Weber test
Tests hearing equality on either side. (Top of head)
Hormone
chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body
target
organ that responds to a particular hormone
Pineal gland
third ventricle of brain. melatonin. inhibitory effect on sexual maturation.
hypothalamus
links the nervous system to the endocrine system
thyroid
inferior to larynx. thyroid hormone. hyposecretion causes myxedema (mental and physical sluggishness)
parathyroid
posterior surface of parathyroid gland. parathyroid hormone, regulates calcium balance in blood. hyposecretion causes tetany.
adrenal glands
near the kidneys. epinephrine or NE. hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids produces abnormal hairiness.
pancreas
partially behind the stomach. insulin and glucagon. Hyposecretion leads to diabetes mellitus.
testes
testosterone. hyposecretion inhibits sexual maturation.
ovaries
estrogen. hyposecretion inhibits sexual maturation.
erythrocytes
red blood cells. transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
leukocytes
white blood cells. play roll in immune system.
granulocytes
neutrophils, eosiniphils, basophils
neutrophils
phagocytize bacteria
eosinophils
kill parasitic worms
basophils
release histamine and other mediators of inflammation
Agranulocytes
lymphocytes, monocytes
lymphocytes
mount immune response by direct cell attack or antibodies
monocytes
phagocytosis
platelets
blood clotting
visceral pericardium
fibroserous membrane closely applied to heart muscle
parietal pericardium
serous membrane surrounding visceral pericardium
myocardium
cardiac muscle
endocardium
thin serous endothelium that lines the atria and ventricles
pulmonary circuit
distributes blood to the lungs to unload CO2 and pick up oxygen and returns to the heart
systemic circuit
carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart.
hepatic portal circulation
drain digestive viscera and deliver blood to the liver for processing.
Circle of Willis
looped network of arteries at the base of the BRAIN. supplies blood to the brain.
reflex arc
innervation for a reflex
stretch reflex
postural reflexes that act to maintain posture, balance, and locomotion. initiated by tapping a tendon which stretches the muscle the tendon is attached to. at the same time, antagonist muscles are inhibitted to prevent them from resisting
crossed extensor reflexes
consists of a flexor, or withdrawal reflex followed by extension of the opposite limb
autonomic reflexes
regulate internal body functions, ie. sweating, digestion....
pituitary or hypophysis
tropic hormones and ADH. hyposecretion of ADH results in diabetes insipidus.