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Honors Chemistry: Chapter 10
Terms in this set (45)
How can you convert among the count, mass, and volume of something?
Knowing how the count, mass, and volume of an item relate to a common unit allows you to convert among these units.
How do chemists count the number of atoms, molecules, or formula units in a substance?
The mole allows chemists to count the number of representative particles in a substance.
How do you determine the molar mass of an element and of a compound?
The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the mass of a mole of the element.
the amount of a substance that contains 6.02x10^23 representative particles of that substance
the number of representative particles contained in one mole of a substance; equal to 6.02x10^23 particles
the smallest unit into which a substance can be broken down without a change in composition, usually atoms, molecules, or ions
a term used to refer to the mass of a mole of any substance
How do you convert the mass of a substance to the number of moles of the substance?
Use the molar mass of an element or compound to convert between the mass of a substance and the moles of the substance
How do you convert the volume of a gas at STP to the number of moles of the gas?
The molar volume is used to convert between the number of moles of gas and the volume of the gas at STP
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
STP (standard temperature and pressure)
the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured; standard temperature is 0 degrees Celsius, and standard pressure is 101.3 kPa, or 1 atmosphere (atm)
the volume occupied by 1 mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP); 22.4 L
How do you calculate the percent composition of a compound?
The percent by mass of an element in a compound is the number of grams of the element divided by the mass in grams of the compound, multiplied by 100%
How can you calculate the empirical formula of a compound?
The percent composition of a compound can be used to calculate the empirical formula of that compound
How does the molecular formula of a compound compare with the empirical formula?
The molecular formula of a compound is either the same as it's experimentally determined empirical formula, or it is a simple whole-number multiple of its empirical formula
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
a formula with the lowest whole-number ratio of elements in a compound; the empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) equals HO
How many moles of lithium (Li) is 4.81x10^24 atoms of lithium?
7.99 moles Li
(the given number of atoms is about 8 times Avogadro's number, so the answer should be around 8 mol of atoms with the appropriate significant figures)
Calculate the mass in grams of 0.160 mol H2O2.
5.44 g H2O2
(The number of moles of H2O2 is about 0.2, and the molar mass os about 30 g/mol. The answer should be around 6 g.)
What is the volume of 1.25 mol He at STP?
(One mole of gas at STP has a volume of 22.4 L, so 1.25 mol should have a volume larger than 22.4 L.)
What is the percent composition of the compound fried when 29.0 g Ag combines completely with 4.30 g S?
%Ag= 87.1 %
%S= 12.9 %
(The percents of the elements add up to 100%)
The mass of an egg is approximately 57 g. What is the mass of 3 dozen (36) eggs?
An apple has a mass of approximately 150 g. A bushel of apples has a mass of approximately 10 kg. How many apples are in a bushel?
about 67 apples
A pencil is approximately 18 cm long. If you had Avogadro's number of pencils lined up end to end, how many kilometers would it stretch?
1.1x 10^20 km
How many moles of carbon is 5.73x 10^24 atoms of carbon?
How many moles of copper is 2.06x 10^20 atoms of copper?
3.42x 10^-4 mol
How many atoms of Al are in 2.50 moles of Al2(SO4)3?
3.01 10^24 atoms
How many atoms of H are in 0.250 moles of (NH4)2CO3?
1.20x 10^24 atoms
What is the molar mass of C6H12O6?
What is the molar mass of Fe(OH)3?
How many moles of Ca(NO3) are in 26.5 g of Ca(NO3)2?
How many moles of CCl4 are in 3.10x 10^4 g of CCl4?
What is the mass, in grams, of 4,30 moles of Ca(NO3)2?
What is the mass, in grams, of 426 moles of (NH4)3PO4?
6.35x 10^4 g
STP conditions are:
0 degrees Celsius, 101.3 kPa (or 1 atm)
What is the volume of 1.06 moles of O2 at STP?
What is the volume of 0.0036 moles of CO2 at STP?
A balloon is filled with 6.0 g of helium. What is the volume of the helium-filled balloon at STP?
The air we breath is approximately 21% oxygen. A typical breath has a volume of about 450 mL. How many grams of O2 are in a breath of air?
Magnesium oxide can be prepared by heating magnesium metal so that it reacts with the oxygen in air. If 1.58 g Mg produces 2.62 g MgO, what is the percent composition of the magnesium oxide produced?
39.7 % oxygen
The molecular formula for the alcohol ethanol is C2H5OH. Calculate the percent by mass of each element in ethanol.
52 % carbon
13 % hydrogen
35 % oxygen
A compound is analyzed and is found to have a percent composition of 30.3 % oxygen, 29.1 % sodium, and 40.6 % sulfur. What is the empirical formula for this compound?
What is an example of an empirical formula?
A compound has the empirical formula C5H7 and molar mass of 536 g/mol. What is the molecular formula for this compound?
A compound contains 4.90 g of nitrogen and 11.2 g of oxygen. The molar mass of the compound is 92.0 g/mol. What are the empirical and molecular formulas for this compound?
empirical formula: NO2
molecular formula: N2O4
Recommended textbook explanations
Matta, Staley, Waterman, Wilbraham
Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry
Sarquis, J., Sarquis, M.
Myers, Oldham, Tocci
Donald J. DeCoste, Steven S. Zumdahl
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