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Intermediate sanctions are also sometimes termed

Alternative sentencing strategies

Which of the following is considered a disadvantage of probation and parole?

relative lack of punishment

Mary is sentenced to probation. The conditions of her probation include: maintain employment, possess no firearm, obey all laws, and meet with her probation officer biweekly. These ________ conditions apply to all probationers in the jurisdiction where she was sentenced.


Which of the following statements about probation is false?

Convicted murderers and rapists cannot be sentenced to probation

Discretionary release is granted by

a parole board

Which of the following is not a function of a probation or parole officer's work?

assistance to prosecutors by conducting arrests and investigations

Which of the following sentences is not an example of an intermediate sanction?

30 days in jail

Which intermediate sanction resembles a military-style boot camp

shock incarceration

House arrest is a valuable alternative to prison for

offenders with special needs.

A sentencing alternative that requires offenders to spend at least part of their time working for a community agency is known as

community service

Which of the following is a specific condition of probation?

Attend anger management classes

According to a Bureau of Justice Statistics study, about what percentage of people convicted of homicide are placed on probation?


Revocation of probation or parole

requires a hearing to determine if the conditions of probation or parole were violated

Which of the following Supreme Court cases held that parole boards do not have to specify the evidence used in deciding to deny parole?

Greenholtz v. Nebraska

Probation is ordered by the


Which U.S. Supreme Court decision ruled that probation officers may search a probationer's residence without a search warrant?

Griffin v. Wisconsin

Which of the following sentences is a prisoner reentry strategy?


Who makes federal parole decisions?

the United States Parole Commission

Which of the following is not one of the most frequent violations for which revocation occurs?

armed robbery

Who makes the release decision when an offender is sentenced to shock parole?

the parole board

Inmates are generally housed in dormitory-like settings and are free to walk the yard in ________ security institutions.


Which of the following statements about jails is false?

The number of males sentenced to jail is growing much faster than the number of females sentenced to jail.

Since 1980, the prison population has


Most people sentenced to federal prison have been convicted of ________ crimes


All death row inmates are held in ________ prisons


The typical American prison today is

minimum or medium custody

How many security levels are there in the federal prison system?


Jails that are built and run using the combined resources of a variety of local jurisdictions are called

regional jails.

________ is the most secure prison ever built by the federal government.

The ADMAX at Florence, Colorado

Jails have been called the ________ of the criminal justice system.


What state became the first in modern times to reinstitute the use of the prison chain gang?


High-security facilities in the federal prison are called

United States Penitentiaries

Which of the following is a Latin term meaning "after the fact"?

ex post facto

What is the primary force holding inmates in minimum-security prisons?

their own restraint

Most states have one large ________ institution

centrally located maximum-security

Most states use a(n) ________ system to assign inmates to custody levels.


Which level of security is highest within the federal prison system?

administrative maximum

The majority of this country's jail inmates are

members of minority groups

The largest growth group in jails nationwide is


Which level of prison security often has chain-link fences topped with barbed wire?


Prison language is also called

prison argot

The socialization of inmates into the prison subculture is called


The ________ model of prison culture suggests that inmates bring values, roles, and behavior patterns from the outside world


Which of the following terms is prison slang for an informant?


In regard to religious freedom, prisoners must be given

a "reasonable opportunity" to pursue their faith.

a "reasonable opportunity" to pursue their faith.

a cool

Cruz v. Beto, decided in 1972, dealt with which inmate issue?


What word describes aggressive men who assume the masculine role in homosexual relations in male prisons?


Prison officials know that a prisoner named Ray faces a substantial risk of serious harm from a fellow
prisoner. The prison officials deliberately disregard the risk to Ray and fail to take reasonable measures to protect Ray. Ray is seriously harmed by his fellow prisoner

Ray has a strong argument that he has been denied his Eighth Amendment right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment.

The ________ is the type of prisoner who thinks of prison as home and feels more comfortable institutionalized than on the streets


Which type of prisoners picture themselves as political prisoners?


The majority of women who are in prison or jail are there for

non-violent drug and property crimes

Which of the following is not a cause of prison riots?

multiple treatment opportunities for inmates

Which state has the largest number of female prisoners?


Suits to formally request a hearing to determine the lawfulness of imprisonment are generally called

writs of habeas corpus

A(n) ________ is a formalized arrangement, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby inmates have the opportunity to register complaints about the conditions of their confinement?

grievance procedure

Civil death refers to

inmates denied the opportunity to vote, hold public office, or enter into contracts.

When examining the quality of medical treatment provided to inmates, courts attempt to identify a

"deliberate indifference" on the part of the staff

Correctional systems can prevent the transmission of AIDS through


About ________ percent of women in state prisons have substance abuse problems


Government agencies that function to investigate, supervise, adjudicate, care for, or confine youthful offenders and other children subject to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court.

juvenile justice system

The document filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent is called a(n)


A child who has no parents or whose parents are unable to care for him or her

dependent child

Children who purchase cigarettes, buy alcohol, and are truant are

status offenders

If a juvenile's case is going to be transferred to adult court it can be transferred

after intake, but before the adjudicatory hearing

The federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 required states accepting federal
funds for their juvenile justice systems to agree to separate juvenile prisoners from adult prisoners by "sight and sound" and to

deinstitutionalize status offenders

If the first court a juvenile case appears in is a juvenile court, the juvenile court is said to have ________ jurisdiction.


It is unclear whether

juveniles can waive their Miranda rights

Texas defines a juvenile subject to juvenile court jurisdiction as a person who has not yet turned ________ years of age


Most states consider a child who is forced into delinquent behavior to be a(n) ________ child


A child who has not been receiving the proper level of physical or psychological care from his or her parents or guardians

neglected child

The 1967 case out of Arizona that granted juveniles many of the due process protections enjoyed by adults, including the right to counsel

In re Gault

________, in the broadest usage, is juvenile actions or conduct in violation of the criminal law, juvenile status offenses, and other juvenile misbehavior


The youngest offenders are known as

child delinquents

One juvenile case in ________ involves detention before adjudication


Transfer hearings are held in

juvenile court

The first step in decision making in a case regarding a juvenile whose behavior is in violation of the law is known as


In the face of strong evidence of the offender's guilt, a juvenile court judge may

still decide it is not in the child's best interest to be adjudicated delinquent

The fact-finding process wherein the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition

adjudicatory hearing

Juvenile courts across the country are becoming increasingly similar to ________ courts

adult criminal

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