Intro to Genetics, Bio

Gregor Mendel
Principles of genetics require
1. each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from its parents
2. when an organism produces its own gametes, those two sets of genes must be separated from each other so taht each gamete contains just one set of genes.
Pure bred
homozygous individual
heterozygous individual
the chemical factors that determine traits
principle of dominance
that if a trait is dominant to another.
Principle of segregation
states that during the formation of gametes, the two alleles for a gene separate so that each new egg or sperm cell carries just one copy of each gene
Principle of independent assortment
alleles segregate independently and randomly when making gametes. How they line up at metaphase of meiosis.
both allels contribute to the phenotype
incomplete dominance
the heterozygous phenotype is some where in between the two homozyous phenotypes.
falty separation of chromosomes during Meiosis 1 or 2.
refers to a cell that contains only one of each chromosome that therefore only a single set of genes.
Refers to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes.
Phases of meiosis
Meiosis 1
- prophase
- metaphase
- anaphase
-telophase and cytokinesis
Polar bodies
cells produced in females that do not participate in reproduction formed in oogenesis.