33 terms

Pre AP U.S. History Final Exam Review

The Great Depression
The Great Depression was an economic depression notable for its duration and intensity that struck the world from 1929-1933. Recovery was a long and difficult process.
Causes of Great Depression
stock markets crashed, unemployment rising, the dustbowl, overproduction of everything, layoffs,buying on credit
First 100 Days
Period from FDR's inauguration in March 1933 through the following June. During this time, Roosevelt pushed program after program through Congress in an effort to provide economic relief and recovery.
Second 100 Days
another phase but this time to provide relief to farmers and workers
FDR programs
FDR created the TVA, Shelterbelt Programs, Civilian Conservation Corps, and WPA Projects as a part of his conservation efforts.
The war between the Axis and the Allies, beginning on September 1, 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and ending with surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, and of Japan on August 14, 1945
Battle between Hitler and his allies wanting to take over the world. Germany broke the League of Nations. Poland was invaded. Russia declared war on Germany. Italy and Japan declared war on Russia and France and England declared war on Germany and Italy. U.S came in because of Pearl Harbor in 1941.
North African campaign
Allies made plans to attack North Africa instead. Axis forces there were in control of Erwin Rommel "Desert Fox". Allies drove Germany out of North Africa in May 1943. Significant: because it gives us experience and battle practice. November 1942= El Aleman British protect Suez Canal. November 8, 1942: Allies land in Morocco (under Eisenhower) George Patton May 1943: Drive Germans out of North Africa.
European theater
The European Theater was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945. Allied forces fought the Axis powers in three theatres: the Eastern Front, the Western Front and the Mediterranean Theatre.
VE Day
Germany surrenders, Victory over Europe.
Pacific theater
Involved the battles of Iwo Jima, Guadalcanal, Phillipines, Wake Island, Guam, Midway, and the two atomic bombs
VJ Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
Home front
What was happening in the United States while America was at war. Examples: women in the economy (Rosie the Riveter), war bonds, rationing coupons, victory gardens, scrap metal drives
Japanese internment
Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 me, women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Germany divided
After WWII Germany was divided into 4 zones but the allies combined their zones and created West Germany. This made Stalin cut off all connections to Berlin and hold Berlin hostage.
Red Scare
two periods of time, in the 1920s and 1950s, in which Americans feared the growth of communism. These suspicions led to tests of the civil liberties of people under the Constitution.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Space Race
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. , 1950-1953
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Brown v. Board
a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws which established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This victory paved the way for integration and the Civil Rights Movement.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Affirmative Action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Reynolds v. Sims
14th amendment requires state legislative districts reflect fair "one person, one vote" rule
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
the absence of employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
The 37th President of the United States (1969-1974). Vice President (1953-1961) under Dwight D. Eisenhower, he lost the 1960 presidential election to John F. Kennedy. Elected President in 1968, he visited China (1972) and established détente with the USSR. Although he increased U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia, he was also responsible for the eventual withdrawal of U.S. troops. When Congress recommended three articles of impeachment for Nixon's involvement in the Watergate scandal, he resigned from office (August 9, 1974).
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.
Rust Belt
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Sun Belt
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.