Jainism and Sikhism
Terms in this set (52)
The religious center for Sikhs
Ways Jainism and Sikhism differ
in their views of reality and their emotional tone
Rejects belief in a Creator and sees the universe simply as natural forces in motion yet it also recognizes the spiritual potential of each person. Like early Buddhism, Jainism emphasizes the ideals of the extreme non attachment and non harm (ahimsa)
Contrary to Jainism, it embraces a debate monotheism and accepts meat eating and military self defense
Can be translated as "crossing makers" or "ford finders". Jains believe that in the present cycle of the universe, 24 great people have reached perfection; and though living in quite different centuries, these saints have been role models and guides who have shown the way to others.
Mahavira (Nataputta Varhamana)
meaning great man or hero. The most recent tirthankara is considered to be the greatest of them all and is often thought of by outsiders to be the founder of Jainism. When he lived is not entirely certain. An older dating accepted by Jains, puts his life entirely in the 6th century bce (599-527 bce) but some scholars believe he lived a bit later but all agree he left home at about age 30 to live the life of a wandering holy man.
After 12 years of meditation, wandering, and extreme mortification, at this age Mahavira had a spiritual experience of great liberation
It is from this title that the religion Jainism takes it's name
Age that Mahavira died at the village of Pava, near present-day Patna, in northeastern India
a long Jain poem of the 19th century and states that "foolish men declare that the Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised and should be rejected."
(Greek:matter-alive) According to Jainism, everything is full of life and is capable of suffering
Jiva (soul, spirit, life) ajiva (nonsoul, non life)
Jains teach that all parts of the universe are composed of two types of reality, which are intermixed. There is spirit which senses and feels and there is matter which is not alive and has no consciousness.
Sees the human being as composed of two opposing parts. The human material side of the humans seeks pleasure, escape from pain, and self-interest. while the spiritual side seeks freedom and escape from all bondage to the material world and from the limitation of eg
For Jains it has a physical quality: it is like a powder or grime that settles on and clings to the spirit. The level of rebirth is determined automaticallyaccording to one's state of it at the time of death of ones current body.
Nonviolence, nonlying, nonstealing, Chastity for the monk or nun, nonattachment
Janism's 5 ethical recommendations
"holy death" Most highly esteemed method of ending ones own life is self starvation. Jains prepare themselves over the years by fasting. When a person is old and growing weak, eating less and less is seen as an appropriate way to hasten the end
The ethical requirement of non attachment for laypeople
Suggests cultivating a spirit of generosity and detachment and limiting ones possessions to what is truly necessary
(means clothed in sky or atmosphere clad) this branch of Jainism holds that everything must be renounced, including the last scrap of clothing and the consequent shame of nakedness. It does not accept woman into the monastic life, holding that they may become monks only when they have been reborn as men. Possibly because of it's high regard for celibacy, it also rejects the tradition that Mahavira was ever married
(means clothed in white and comes from the fact that monks dressed in white robes) This branch of Jainism allows women to enter monastic life as nuns and to dress in white as well. It is fairly young, having grown within the past few hundred years. It is a reform movement that emerged from the Shvetambara branch in the early 18th century. They do not make use of either temple or images.
Jainsim branch that was founded by Acharya Bhikshe. They reject use of images, To ensure discipline the founder instituted a hierarchal structure with a supreme guru, Acharya, at the top who oversees all operations
This practice-offered to both tirthankaras and to deities- has been adopted to most Jains (exceptions being the Sthanakavasis and Terapanthis)
Period of fasting (paryusana)
Laypeople join monks for this on the last days of the Jain year in late summer, before the celebration of the new year begins (in August or September). This period lasts 15 days for the Digambaras and * days for the Shvetambaras. The religious year ends with confession of wrongdoing and a plea for pardon from anyone that might have been affected
It is an important part of Jain spirituality and the village near Patna, where Mahavira died is a great spiritual center
ancient Jain scripture that exist no longer in their entirety but only as limited quotations in later scripture
Eleven Angas ("limbs")
At the heart of canonical material. Jainism holds the Angas to be the teaching of Mahavira although they were not given final form until two centuries after his death
Twelve Upangas ("lesser limbs")
a collection of laws, rituals, (particularly associated with assistance in dying) and other miscellaneous texts
Does not full accept the authenticity of the Angas, maintaining that the words of Mahavira we remembered and transmitted imperfectly after the first division of the Jains had taken place.
does not recognize any literature as scripture
Sikhism grew up in this area which today is part of the northwestern India and eastern Pakistan
People who practiced a spirituality that drew from both religions and that sight to overcome religious divisions
a mystic who was the greatest exponent of the sant tradition, whose poetry has had enormous influence in India
Founder of Sikhism. Was born in 1469 in what is today Pakistan. He grew up in a Hindu family, married, had two children and held several jobs- first as a herder and then as a clerical assistant to a sultan.
Referred to the fundamental divine reality as the True Name-signifying that all names and terms that are applied to God are limited because the divine is beyond all human conception
Nanaks Style of clothing
Particularly startling, it deliberately blended Hindu and Muslim elements
a cloth drawn up between the legs to form pants
He died in 1539 at age 70. He commonly called Guru and is recognized as the first of a line of ten Sikh gurus
Nanak's view of God
Although God is ultimately beyond personhood, God does have personal qualities such as knowledge, love, a sense of justice, and compassion. Because of these qualities, God can be approached personally by the individual. In his view God is the primary guru. Although he saw himself as God's mouth piece he preached that God dwells within each individual and can be contacted within the human heart
Nanak organized religious groups which were called to offer both worship to God and assistance to fellow human beings
Earliest stage of Sikhism (Stage of the first four gurus- Nanak, Angad, Amar Das, and Ram Das.)
During this period, hymns were written, numerous communities were organized, and a village headquarters was created at Amritsar, in northern India
Second Stage (consolidation and religious definition)
Began with Guru Arjan, a son of Ram Das. In his role as the 5th guru, Arjan built the golden temple and it's surrounding pond at Amritsar. Collecting about 3000 hymns-written by him and earlier urus and saints- Arjan created the sacred books of the Sikhs
Adi Granth (original collection)
Sacred book of the Sikhs created by Guru Arjan
Arjans son steered Sikhism in a more self defensive direction. In response to his fathers persecution he enlisted a body guard and an army to protect him and his followers. He adopted the practice of wearing a sword, thus abandoning the Hindu ideal of ahimsa. The growing militancy of evolving Sikhism was successful in averting perfection during the tenure of the next gurus
The 9th guru however was imprisioned and decapitated by the Muslim emperor Aurangzeb who's saw Sikhism as a serious threat to his control
The tenth guru idealized the sword. Because of his military power, Gobind Rai came to be known as Goband Singh (Gobind the lion)
Goband inaugurated a special military order for men. It was open for all castes for Gobind Singh had ended all caste distinctions among Sikhs. Every male took on the name Singh
Was considered to be Gobind Singh's successor and the final, permanent Guru
Guru Granth Sahib
The sacred book both in Amritsar and in Sikh temples is treated with the same reverence that would be show a living guru
Primary book of Sikh scripture and is divided into three parts
First part of the Adi Granth (Japji)
Most important par, a moderately long poem by guru Nanak that summarizes the religion. It speaks of the indescribability of God and the joy of union with him
Second Part of the Adi Granth
Consists of thirty-nine rags (tunes) by Guru Nanak and later gurus
Third part of the Adi Granth
a collection of varied works, including poems and hymns from Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh gurus and saints
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