Viral STI, genital warts; benign growths caused by HPV. Occur on external genital, vaginal wall, cervix, anus, thighs, lips, mouth, & throat. Lesions vary in appearance (cauliflower-like, rough, flat smooth, etc.) treat -preventative HPV vaccine, growth removal for aesthetic Bacterial STI, intracellular parasite; neonatal conjunctivitis (eye infection- blindness), PID, epididymitis, prostatitis, infertility, & eptopic pregnancy
S/S: dysuria, discharge (purulent), testicular tenderness/pain, rectal pain, & painful sexual intercourse. Treat- antibiotic azithromycin (zithromax), doxycycline, or erythromycin
Bacterial STI, (the clap or the drip), aerobic bacterium w/ many drug-resistant strain. Attaches to the mucosa of the vag, mouth, or anus causing irritation & inflammation; complications like chlamydia & in other parts of the body- arthritis, dermatitis, & endocarditis.
Manifest- dysuria, urinary frequency/urgency, discharge (white, yellow, or green), redness or edema at urinary meatus (in men), pharyngitis, white blisters that darken & disappear. Treat- antibiotics
Bacterial STI, ulcerative infection spiral-shaped bacterium. Ulcerative lesions- chancres. Primary- one chancre forms, painless & goes away; bacteria goes dormant. Secondary- nonpruritic, brown-red rash, malaise, fever, & patchy hair loss; go away & dormant Latent/ Tertiary- final stage, spreads to brain, nervous system, heart, skin, & bones. Can cause blindness, paralysis, dementia, cardiovascular disease, & death.
Treat- early on antibiotics like penicillin, etc. not effective in latent phase syphilis
Uncommon cancer, young (15-35 yr old men), slow growing or fast growing. Risk- history, infection, trauma, tobacco use, testicle abnormalities. Usually affects one testicle, metastasize to nearby lymph, lungs, liver, bone & brain. Manifest- hard, painless, palpable mass that does not transilluminate; discomfort, enlargement, & female-like breast). Highly curable; treat- orchiectomy, chemo/ radiation Most common malignancy in women, can occur in men; advancing age, early onset menstruation, history, genetics (BRCA1/2 genes), obesity, etc. Manifest- movable mass, hard, uneven edges, usually painless, change in nipple appearance (dimple, redness, or puckering), nipple drainage (bloody, clear-yellow/green or purulent) Treat- aggressive multimethod (chemo, radiation, surgery, & hormone therapy) Pap smear can detect precancerous cells, which are 100% treatable. Usually caused by HPV, & asymptomatic when manifest- discharge (pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul smelling), abnormal vaginal bleeding, menorrhagia (abnormal heavy bleeding)
Advanced cancer- anorexia, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic, back or leg pain, unilateral lower extremity edema, heavy bleeding, leaking urine or feces from vag, & bone fractures Treat- loop electrosurgical excision procedure, cryotherapy, laser therapy, adv- chemo, radiation, & surgery
9th most common cancer in women, no reliable screening test, difficult to treat, & metastasize at time of diagnosis. Risks- genetic (BRCA1/2), advancing age, infertility, excessive estrogen exposure, obesity, & androgen hormone therapy Manifest- abdominal distention, pelvic pain, & eating disturbances, bowel pattern changes, GI discomfort, pair during intercourse, malaise, urine frequency, & menstruation changes. Treat- surgery, chemo, salpingo-oopho-rectomy (ovary & fallopian tube removal) & hysterectomy Type A- waterborne (fecal-oral), abrupt; fever, nausea & jaundice in children, mild severity
Type B- perinatal (blood/skin), insidious; nausea & jaundice, moderate severity
Type C- sexual (blood/skin), insidious; nausea, mild severity
Type D- sexual (blood/skin), insidious; fever, nausea & jaundice, moderate-severe
Type E- waterborne (fecal-oral), abrupt; fever, nausea & jaundice, severe
inflammation of pancreas
acute- medical emergency; upper abdominal pain radiates to back & worsens after eating, nausea/ vomiting, mild jaundice, low fever, blood pressure & pulse changes
chronic- upper abdominal pain, indigestion, losing weight, streatorrhea, constipation, & flatulence
Treat- no eating; intravenous nutrition (TPN), pancreatic enzyme supplements when diet is resumed, maintain hydration-intravenous, antibiotic if infected, pain management, etc.
Gallstones (calculi in gallbladder), varying in sizes & shapes. More common in fair-skinned women. Risks- age, obesity, rapid weight loss, pregnancy, hormone replacement, some chronic diseases. Cholecystitis calculi cause inflammation or infection in biliary system, small asymptomatic, large -obstruct bile flow; gallbladder rupture, fistula formation, gangrene, hepatitis, pancreatitis, & carcinoma
Manifest- abdominal pain, distension, nausea, clay-colored stool, fever, leukocytosis Treat- low-fat diet, meds to dissolve calculi, surgical removal
Chyme backs up into the esophagus, & occasionally bile. From: certain foods (chocolate, spicy or fatty, etc.), smoking, alcohol, obesity, pregnancy, meds, etc. Manifest- heartburn, epigastric pain (after meal), dysphagia, nausea (after eating), dry cough, "lump in throat" feeling, regurgitation of food, etc. Treat- avoid triggers, avoid NSAIDs, loose clothing, small frequent meals, reduce stress, losing weight, antacids, etc.