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120 terms

HMS 138

STUDY
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Essential nutrients are those which must be provided in the diet because they cannot be made by the body in sufficient quantities, or not at all.
True
There is no single food for adults and children that contains all the essential nutrients.
True
Lifestyle behaviors exert a stronger influence on overall health and longevity than do genetic traits.
True
Goals to improve the diet of all U.S. citizens include:
nutrition education at more schools
reduced consumption of fat and saturated fat
increased intake of plant foods
National goals to achieve dietary change in the American population are summarized in Healthy People 2010: objectives for the Nation.
True
All of the following would be recommended to someone trying to adopt a healthier lifestyle EXCEPT:
Eat less refined sugar.
Eat more whole grains.
Eat a salad with a variety of vegetables at each meal.
People believe nutrition nonsense and buy fraudulent nutrition products because:
laws that govern truth in advertising are often not enforced.
there are often few or no solutions in orthodox health care.
many people tend to believe what they see in print.
The "Serving Size" on the nutrition facts panel for fruit juice will always be the same, even though the brand may differ.
True
Too much sugar in the diets of young and elementary school age children has been clearly shown to cause hyperactivity
False
Attempts at dietary improvement often fail because the changes made are too extreme to be long-lasting and/or too many changes are attempted at once.
True
Water is mostly reabsorbed in the large intestine.
True
Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are known as the energy nutrients.
True
Check all that apply. Fiber intake is recommended:
to prevent constipation and hemorrhoids
accompanied by plenty of fluids (8-12 cups a day)
Bile is produced by the ______ and stored in the ___ until it is released into the small intestine.
liver; gall bladder
Proteins that act to speed up body processes, but are not changed in the process, are called:
enzyes
What is chyme?
mixture of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices
Which physiological trigger(s) will result in the sensation of hunger?
low glucose levels
The ___ is most responsible for prompting individuals to seek food.
hypothalamus
What is the term that best describes the process in which nutrients pass through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract?
absorption
Satiation is the sensation of feeling hunger.
False
Fiber can be found in plant and animal food.
False
Simple sugars are only found in processed foods.
False
The body's storage form of glucose is:
glycogen
Check all that apply. Which of the following statement(s) about sugar is/are true?
Sugar contributes to tooth decay.
When wheat is refined:
most of the fiber is removed
the bran and germ are removed
Approximately 30 -35% ot total calories in the diet should come from carbohydrates, particularly starches.
False
Check all that apply. Increasing dietary fiber:
should be done gradually
should be accompanied by a lot of fluids
can cause gas and discomfort until intestinal bacteria adjust to higher intakes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is the reason for what is termed the diabetes epidemic.
True
Diet and exercise are the primary factors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
True
Prediabetes is usually due to a condition known as metabolic syndrome.
True
A teaspoon of margarine has less fat than a teaspoon of butter.
False
Hydrogenated vegetable oils contain more saturated fat than the original oil.
True
Check all that apply about cholesterol.
is found only in animal products
is found in every cell in the body
is made by the liver
Check all that apply about unsaturated fats.
are usually liquid at room temperature
are found mostly in plant foods
may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
Check any and all that apply about dietary fats.
Fat is a component of all cell membranes.
Fats are a subcategory of fat-soluble substances chemically known as:
lipids
It is clearly established that diets high in saturated fat and trans fat are a major risk factor heart disease.
True
African Americans are less likely to die from heart disease than are Caucasian Americans.
False
Although heart disease may begin during childhood, the age group most affected by it is:
adults over 55 years old
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is ____ of total energy intake
20-35%
A high-protein diet generally corresponds to a diet that is too high in:
fat
How many amino acids are considered to be essential?
9
Which of these foods is not a good source of protein?
orange
Which of the following plant sources of protein is considered a complete protein for adults?
soybeans
In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized?
ribosome
Unlike other macronutrients, protein molecules contain the element nitrogen.
True
Antibodies are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions without being physcially altered.
False
In properly nourished individuals, protein contributes minimally to energy needs.
True
Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels.
False
The essential amino acid found in shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a limiting amino acid.
True
Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
True
Vitamins give you energy.
False
Vitamins E, C, and beta-carotene function as antioxidants.
True
It is too difficult for people to get all the vitamins they need from food,so supplements should be taken.
False
Blindness can be the result of a prolonged deficiency of vitamin A.
True
Vitamin K is important for blood clotting.
True
Choose all that apply. The fat-soluble vitamins include:
A,D,E,K
Excellent sources of vitamin C include red and green peppers.
True
Frying decreases the amount of vitamin E in vegetable oil.
True
Beta-carotene is a provitamin, or precursor, to vitamin A.
True
Iron-deficiency anemia in children is related to lasting retardation in mental development.
True
Goiter is a highly visible sign of an iodine deficiency.
True
An easy way to tell if a food is high in sodium is whether it tastes salty.
False
Most bottled waters do not contain Fluoride.
True
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body.
True
Peak bone density is the point at which our bones are the most dense.
True
Which of the following increases the absorption rate of calcium?
Vitamin D
Check all that apply. Women tend to consume too little calcium because of which of the following reasons?
They may be lactose intolerant.
They think only children need milk.
They are afraid dairy is "fattening."
They drink soft drinks instead of milk.
Check all that apply. Which of the following are not considered risk factors for osteoporosis?
physical inactivity
being a smoker
Caucasian or Asian heritage
being a male
inadequate vitamin D intake
Most of the body's iron supply is found in:
hemoglobin
Water is an essential nutrient.
True
Drinking alcohol increases water losses.
True
Inadequate fluid intake can lead to dehydration.
True
Lean tissue contains a greater percentage of fluid compared with fat tissue.
True
Drinking 8 glasses of fluid each day ensures that all healthy adults will meet their fluid needs.
False
What mineral is mainly provided by our municipal drinking water?
Fluoride
All of the following are signs of adequate hydration status EXCEPT:
dark yellow urine
Women may experience the intoxicating effects of alcohol from lower amounts of alcohol than men.
True
Which of the following alcoholic beverages has the least alcohol?
12 o.z light beer
Check any and all that apply. Alcohol abuse can lead to deficiencies of nutrients because:
Alcohol accounts for about 50% of the daily caloric intake in heavy drinkers.
A heavy drinker's diet often provides too little thiamin and vitamins A and C.
Alcohol is an "empty-calorie" food.
Alcohol in excess is directly toxic to body tissues.
Satiety, an internal cue to stop eating, can be overridden by appetite, the desire for a specific food.
True
High-fat foods provide more calories per ounce than foods that contain primarily carbohydrate.
True
Hunger is a pleasant sensation that is aroused by thoughts of the taste and enjoyment of food.
False
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following activities is a function of basal metabolism?
digestion of food
tissue repair
growth
urine production
body temperature
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following foods contain calories?
foods you sample while cooking
cookie pieces
celery
foods you grab quickly
When calories consumed equals calories expended, resulting in a stable weight, this is termed:
energy balance
Approximately 50% of obese children will become obese adults.
Question options:
True
True
The majority of obese people have a depressed basal metabolic rate.
False
As we grow older there is nothing we can do to slow the loss of lean body mass.
False
Pear-shaped fat patterning is more common in women than in men.
True
Physical fitness is measured by the body's strength and endurance only.
False
Regular physical activity benefits both physical and psychological health in people of all ages.
True
Maximal heart rate is determined by subtracting your age from 220.
True
Muscle strength can be achieved with resistance training.
True
The only effective aerobic exercise is jogging.
False
Nutrition has important effects on physical performance.
True
Heat exhaustion is more likely to occur when exercising in cold weather.
False
To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness it is recommended that training should occur _____.
3-5 days a week
Which of the following individuals should have a medical evaluation prior to beginning an exercise regimen?
Betty, a 55-year-old woman who is healthy but inactive
Jack, a 65-year-old man with diabetes
Frank, a 45-year-old man who is healthy but inactive
Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol.
True
In order to establish good eating habits in children, they should be denied cakes, candies, cookies, potato chips and other sweet/fattening foods until they have reached elementary school age.
False
Irritability in children may indicate hunger.
True
Children should drink milk to help them obtain enough calcium in their diet.
True
Rates of overweight in children and adolescents in the U.S. have tripled since the 1960's.
True
Check any and all that apply. During the growing years of childhood:
Physical activity and food preferences are established
Children develop responsiveness to internal feeding cues, if they are allowed to control how much they eat.
Eating habits that may affect the development of diseases in later life are established
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following affects food likes and dislikes?
which foods are offered
how frequently particular foods are offered
the way a food is offered
forcing a child to eat a food
Which of the following is/are NOT characteristic of an "obesigenic" environment for children?
increased opportunities for physical activity
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in young children.
True
Physical inactivity is more common in girls than boys.
True
Girls gain more body fat through adolescence than boys.
True
Most food borne illnesses are linked to meats, eggs, shellfish, and unpasteurized milk.
True
Food borne illnesses cannot be transmitted by fruits and vegetables.
False
Salmonella infections can be transmitted via contaminated undercooked eggs.
True
Check any and all that apply. Foodborne illnesses can often be traced to:
cross-contamination
unsanitary conditions
improper food handling techniques
an infected employee in a food service establishment
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following are good ideas when sanitizing your hands?
scrub under your fingernails
use a paper towel to dry them
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following practices will help prevent foodborne illnesses?
Don't keep perishable foods at room temperature for more than an hour.
Wash hands with soap and water prior to preparing foods.
Thaw foods on the refrigerator, not on the counter.
Freeze or refrigerate leftovers promptly.
Which agency monitors all confirmed cases of food-borne illness?
CDC
Hepatitus-A is a food borne illness that can result in _____ damage.
liver
Choose any and all that apply. Which of the following is responsible for food spoilage?
light
heat
oxygen
90% of all food allergies are due to the ______ found in foods.
proteins