4th Grade ELA PSSA Vocabulary

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alliteration
Repetition of consonant sounds
foreshadowing
A warning or indication of a future event
onomatopoeia
A word that imitates the sound it represents.
rhyme
Repetition of sounds at the end of words
symbolism
1. The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities. 2. The symbolic meaning attached to material objects.
hyperbole
An exaggeration
idiom
An expression that cannot be understood if taken literally (ex- "Get your head out of the clouds").
irony
A contrast between what is expected and what actually happens.
metaphor
A comparison without using like or as
personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
simile
A comparison using "like" or "as"
characterization
A method an author uses to let readers know more about the characters and their personal traits.
characters
the people or animals in a story
conflict
A struggle between opposing forces
motives
The reasons people do what they do
plot
Sequence of events in a story
setting
The context in time and place in which the action of a story occurs.
theme
A message about life or human nature that the writer shares with the reader.
main idea
what a piece of writing is mainly about
sequential order
This is the chronological, or time, order of events in a reading passage.
cause and effect
The reason something happens and the result of it happening.
stanza
A group of lines in a poem
verse
A single line of poetry
first person
"I" and "Me" standpoint. Personal perspective.
third person
Point of view in which the narrator is outside of the story - an observer
second person
Told from the reader's point of view, using "you"
author's purpose
The reason the author has for writing. ( Inform, persuade, express, & entertain)
style
The author's choices regarding language, sentence structure, voice, and tone in order to communicate with the reader.
tone
Attitude a writer takes toward the audience, a subject, or a character
caption
A title or short description of a picture
facts
something that actually exists and can be proven true
graphic organizer
a tool that helps to organize ideas and can be used to visually illustrate ideas
heading
a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about
charts, tables, graphs
Graphic representation that present information in easily interpreted formats
subheading
The title or heading for one section in a text
opinion
A personal view or attitude about something
inferences
a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
summarize
briefly retelling in your own words the main ideas and most important details
antonym
A word that means the opposite of another word
compound word
word made of two or more word roots
context clues
A vocabulary strategy in which the reader looks at the words around an unfamiliar word to find clues to its meaning.
homograph
Two words that are spelled the same, but have different pronunciation and meaning
multiple-meaning words
a word that has more than one meaning
homophone
One of two or more words pronounced alike but different in meaning and spelling
prefix
a syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning
root word
The base word you start with before adding prefixes or suffixes
suffix
A word or letter placed after the root.
synonym
A word that means the same as another word
genre
A category or type of literature
biography
A written account of another person's life.
autobiography
An account of a person's life written by that person
fiction
A story that is not true or is made up
nonfiction
writing that tells about real people, places, and events
narrative text
The telling of a story or an account of a sequence of events.
realistic fiction
A story using made-up characters that could happen in real life.
persuasive text
Persuading be reader to believe something
play
a story acted out live, using dialogue and action
poetry
Words arranged in a rhythm that express ideas and emotions
historical fiction
A fictional story that takes place in a particular time period in the past. Often the setting is real, but the characters are made up from the author's imagination.
fable
A short tale, often with nonhuman characters, from which a useful lesson or moral may be drawn.
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