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In 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women', this political thinker presented an argument for the education of women. She also declared that women should have the same political rights as men.


This aristocratic philosophe was devoted to the study of political liberty. In his famous book 'On the Spirit of the Laws', he proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of a government.


This philosophe strongly disagreed with other philosophers on a number of matters. For instance: he argued that civilization corrupts people's natural goodness. (others believed reason, science, and art improve lives)


This philosophe's masterful use of satire got him into frequent trouble with the clergy , the aristocracy, and the government of France. Despite serving two prison terms and being exiled, he never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and speech.


A political thinker felt people are reasonable beings, supported self government and argued that its purpose was to protect the natural rights of the people. If government fails, the people have the right to overthrown it.


A political thinker thought all humans were wicked and selfish. He argued that strong governments were needed to control human behavior. To avoid chaos, the needed to enter a social contract and give up their rights in exchange for law and order.


Life, Liberty, and property.

natural rights

This is an agreement between individuals and their government that defines the rights and responsibilities of both parties.

social contract

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