Early Childhood & Education of the Young Child Praxis exam II

Terms in this set (363)

Erickson's Stage 1 Infancy age 0-1 DESCRIPTION: In the first year of life, infants depend on others for food, warmth, and affection and therefore must be able to blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those.
Erickson's Stage 1 Infancy age 0-1 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If their needs are met consistently and responsively by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their env in feneral as well.
Erickson's Stage 1 Infancy age 0-1 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their env, even towards themselves.
Erickson's Stage 2: Toddler age 1-2 DESCRIPTION: Toddlers learn to walk talk, use toilets and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
Erickson's Stage 2: Toddler age 1-2 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If parents encourage their child's use of initiative and reassure her when she makes mistakes, the child will develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control and independence.
Erickson's Stage 3 Early childhood age 2-6 DESCRIPTION: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them. They now must learn to achieve a balance between eagerness for more adventure and more responsibility and learning to control impulses and childish fantasies.
Erickson's Stage 3 Early childhood age 2-6 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept w/o guilt that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays.
Erickson's Stage 3 Early childhood age 2-6 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.
Erickson's Stage 4 Elementary and middle school age 6-12 DESCRIPTION: School is the important even at this stage. Children learn to ake things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider. And they do all these while making the transition from the world of home into the world of peers.
Erickson's Stage 4 Elementary and middle school age 6-12 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence.
Erickson's Stage 4 Elementary and middle school age 6-12 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority.
Stage 5 Adolescence age 12-18 DESCRIPTION: This is the time when we ask the question Who am I? To successfully answer the question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the identity crisis which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face.
Stage 5 Adolescence age 12-18 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If the adolescent solves this conflict successfullly, he will come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future.
Stage 5 Adolescence age 12-18 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices esp about vocation, sexual orientation and his role in life in general.
Stage 6 Young adulthood age 19-40 DESCRIPTION: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you are not developmentally copmlete until you are capable of intimacy. An ind who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.
Stage 6 Young adulthood age 19-40 POSITIVE OUTCOME: Adult individuals can form close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity.
Stage 6 Young adulthood age 19-40 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, they will fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world.
Stage 7 Middle adulthood age 40-65 DESCRIPTION: By generativity Erkison refers to the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care for others through parenting, for instance. Erikson suggested that adults need children as much as children need adults and that this stage reflets the need to create a living legacy.
Stage 7 Middle adulthood age 40-65 POSITIVE OUTCOME: People can solve this crisis by having and nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways.
Stage 7 Middle adulthood age 40-65 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If this crisis is not successfully resolved, the person will remain self-centered and experience stagnation later in life.
Stage 8 late adulthood age 65- death DESCRIPTION: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things and seeing it filled with pleasure and satisfaction or disappointments and failures.
Stage 8 late adulthood age 65- death POSITIVE OUTCOME: If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within himself and with others, he will accept death with a sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not fear life, said Erikson the healthy adult will not fear death.
Stage 8 late adulthood age 65- death NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, the ind will despair and fear death.
4 mos fine motor grasps rattle, plays with hands together, inspects hands, carries objects to mouth.
4 mos gross motor lifts head up and looks around will roll from prone to supine, when pulled to sitting position, no longer has head lag, when held in standing position, attempts to maintain some weight support
4 mos social and language becomes bored when left alone, begins to show memory, squeals and vocalizations change with mood
6 mos fine motor will hold spoon or rattle, will drop object and reach for second offered object, holds bottle
6 mos gross motor begins to raise abdoment off table, sits but posture still shaky, may sit with legs apart; holds arms straight as propr between legs, supports almost full weight when pulled to standing position
6 mos social and language recognizes parents, holds out arms to be picked up, begins to imitate sounds, uses one-syllable sounds (ma, mu, da, di)
8 mos fine motor beginning thumbfinger grasping, releases object at will, grasps for toys out of reach
8 mos gross motor stis securely wo support, bears weight on legs when supported, may stand holding on
8 mos social language responds to word no, dislikes diaper changes, makes consonant sounds t, d, w, uses two syllables such as da-da, but does not asribe meaning to them
12 mos fine motor may hold cup and spoon and feed self fairly well with practice, can offer toys and release them, releases cube in cup
12 mos gross motor able to twist and turn and maintain posture, able to sit from standing position, may stand alone, at least momentarily
12 mos social and language shows emotions of jealousy, affection, anger fear, may develop habit of security blanket or favorite toy, da-da or ma-ma, recognizes objects by name, imitates animal sounds, understands simple verbal commands (give it to me)
60 mos 5 (yr) fine motor able to dress self with minimal assistance, able to draw three-part human figure, draws square following demonstration, colors within lines
60 mos (5 yr) gross motor hops on one foot, catches ball bounced to him or her two out of three times, able to demonstrate heel-toe walking, jumps rope
60 mos (5 yr) social and language eager to follow rules, less rebellious, relies on outside authority to control the world, has 2100 word vocabulary, recognizes three colors, asks meanings of words, uses sentences of six to eight words
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