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Early Childhood & Education of the Young Child Praxis exam II

Information in preparation for both Praxis exams
Albert Bandura
Theory:"Social (or Observational) Learning Theory". Bandura found that children learn by observing others. In a classroom setting, This may occur through modeling or learning vicariously through others' experiences.
Social Learning Theory
the theory that behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishments.-Bandura
Social Cognitive Theory
Albert Bandura's theory of personality, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism. Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory. Social cognitive theory distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning
Enactive Learning Theory
Enactive learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions (self-regulation of behavior, goal directed behavior, self-monitoring).
Four elements of observational learning
Four elements of observational learning
4.Motivation and reinforcement
Vicarious Learning
AKA observational learning or modeling; component of social learning theory; expanded by Albert Bandura; states that people pay attention to a model and convert the learning into action
Jerome Bruner
Theories:"Discovery Learning" and "Constructivism" Bruner suggests that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. His constructivist theory emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection. Discovery learning features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.
Discovery Learning
an approach to teaching that gives students opportunities to inquire into subjects so that they discover knowledge for themselves. Discovery learning encourages students to think for themselves and discover how knowledge is constructed.
John Dewey
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard." Viewed problem solving according to the scientific method as the proper way to think and the most effective teaching method
Schools should teach learners how to solve problems and inquire/interact with their natural and social environments
Every learner attempts to explore and understand his/her environment
Jean Piaget
This psychologist believed children are born with an innate cognitive ability that must be developed. He believed intelligence consists of interaction and coping with one's environment and proposed 4 levels. Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operations. & Formal Operations.
ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories
mental systems of categories and experiences
adjustment to the environment
fitting new information into existing schemes
altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information
search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment
actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions
Four stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor - 0-2 yrs - involves the senses and motor activity
Preoperational - 2-7 yrs - stage before a child masters logical mental operations
Concrete operational - 7-11 yrs - mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations
Formal operational - 11-adult - mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables
Goal of education
Goal of education should be to help children learn how to learn
Importance of developmentally appropriate education
Individuals construct their own understandings
Value of play
Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934; russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development
Sociocultural theory
Vygotsky's theory, in which children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society.emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society
Children learn the culture of their community (ways of thinking & behaving) through interactions
Zone of Proximal Development
- phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support
support for learning and problem solving. The support could be anything that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner
Private talk
Howard Gardner
Harvard researcher that has identified at least eight types of intelligences: linguistic, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, spatial (visual), interpersonal (the ability to understand others), intrapersonal (the ability to understand oneself), and naturalist (the ability to recognize fine distinctions and patterns in the natural world).
Abraham Maslow
(1908-1970) humanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs, with self-actualization as the ultimate psychological need. Humans have a hierarchy of needs ranging from lower-level needs for survival and safety to higher-level needs for intellectual achievement and finally self-actualization
Maslow-fulfilling one's potential
1.need for self-actualization
2.esteem needs and belonging needs needs
5.physiological needs
B.F. Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
operant conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response.a form of learning whereby a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement
When behaviors are followed by desirable consequences, they tend to increase in frequency
When behaviors do not produce results, they typically decrease and may even disappear altogether
Erik Erikson
1902-1994; Field: neo-Freudian, humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
Developmental crisis
- conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative. The way in which the individual resolves each crisis will have a lasting effect on that person's self-image and view of society
Erik Erikson-
Eight stages of psychosocial development
Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Lawrence Kohlberg
1927-1987; Field: cognition, moral development; Contributions: created a theory of moral development that has 3 levels; focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior
Moral dilemmas
Kohlberg-situations in which no choice is clearly and indisputably right.
Stages of moral reasoning-Kohlberg
Level 3 - Postconventional Moral Reasoning - social contract and universal ethics
Moral reasoning - the thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong
Level I - Preconventional Moral Reasoning - judgment is based own person needs and others' rules
Level 2 - Conventional Moral Reasoning - judgment is based on others; approval, family expectations, traditional values, laws of society, and loyalty to country
Carol Gilligan
Theory:"Stages of the Ethic of Care" Gilligan's work questions the male-centered personality psychology of Freud and Erikson, as well as Kohlberg's malecentered stages of moral development. She proposed the stage theory of the moral development of women: Proposed a different sequence of moral development, an Ethic of Care
Individuals move from a focus on self-interest to moral reasoning based on commitment to specific individuals and relationships, and then to the highest level of morality based on the principles of responsibilities and care for all people
a theoretical perspective that proposes that learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiences—knowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality.
One's knowledge and beliefs about one's own cognitive processes, and one's resulting attempts to regulate those cognitive processes to maximize learning and memory
Knowledge about our own thinking processes
Schemata (plural for schema) - In contemporary cognitive psychology, an organized body of knowledge about a specific topic
Basic structures for organizing information, concepts
A phenomenon whereby something that an individual has learned at one time affects how the individual learns or performs in a later situation
Influence of previously learned material on new material
Bloom's Taxonomy
a taxonomy in which six learning tasks, varying in degrees of complexity, are identified for the cognitive domain:
Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
Intrinsic Motivation
the internal desire to perform a particular task; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward
Extrinsic Motivation
motivation promoted by factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed; motivation created by external factors (reward or punishment)
Learning Styles
characteristic approaches to learning and studying
Student learning is influenced by:
Individual experiences
Individual talents
Prior learning
Community Values
Considerations in teaching:
Multicultural backgrounds
Age-appropriate knowledge and behavior
The student culture at the school
Family backgrounds
Linguistic patterns and differences
Cognitive patterns and differences
Social and emotional issues
Correlational Relationship
the extent to which two variables are related to each other, such that when one variable increases, the other either increases or decreases in a somewhat predictable manner
Causal Relationship
explains why behaviors occurs
Learned Helplessness
a general belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
the belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
the act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of that response
Positive Reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus.
a process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations of a desired terminal behavior
In classical conditioning, the eventual disappearance of a conditioned response as a result of the conditioned stimulus being repeatedly presented alone
In operant conditioning, the eventual disappearance of a response that is no longer being reinforced
a consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing a response every time it occurs
Intermittent Reinforcement
reinforcing a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response going unreinforced
Ability grouping
The practice of placing students in groups based on academic ability or achievement
African American English
Dialect of some African American communities characterized by certain pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical constructions different from those of Standard English.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, The (ADA)
Legislation in the United States that extends civil rights protection of persons with disabilities to private-sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication including physical accessibility and the removal of barriers to hotels, restaurants, grocery stores, and parks if that can be accomplished without great difficulty or expense.
Antecedent stimulus
Stimulus that increases the likelihood that a particular response will follow.
Process of observing a sample of a student's behavior and drawing inferences about the student's knowledge and abilities.
Disorder marked by inattention, inability to inhibit inappropriate thoughts and behaviors, or both.
Autism spectrum disorders
Disorders marked by impaired social cognition, social skills, and social interaction, presumably due to a brain abnormality; extreme forms often associated with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors
Classroom climate
Overall psychological atmosphere of the classroom.
Cognitive style
Characteristic way in which a learner tends to think about a task and process new information; typically comes into play automatically rather than by choice.
Crystallized intelligence
Knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experience, schooling, and culture.
Cultural bias
Extent to which assessment tasks either offend or unfairly penalize some students because of their ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status.
Behaviors and belief systems that members of a long-standing social group share and pass along to successive generations.
Culture shock
Sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned.
Form of a language that has certain unique pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group.
Differentiated instruction
Practice of individualizing instructional methods, and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals, to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
Distributed intelligence
Idea that people act more "intelligently" when they have physical, symbolic, or social assistance.
Due process
The principle that government must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Emotional and behavioral disorders
Emotional states and behaviors that consistently and significantly disrupt academic learning and performance.
Entity view of intelligence
Belief that intelligence is a "thing" that is relatively permanent and unchangeable.
Ethnic group
People who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence.
Ethnic identity
Awareness of one's membership in a particular ethnic or cultural group, and willingness to adopt behaviors characteristic of the group.
Fair and nondiscriminatory evaluation
Nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine if child has disability and needs special education; nondiscriminatory evaluation with regard to race, culture, or native language, with placement decisions made on basis of multiple test scores and observations.
Fluid intelligence
Ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations.
Free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
Special education and related services that (a) have been provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction and without charge; (b) meet the standards of the state educational agency; (c) include an appropriate preschool, elementary, or secondary school education in the state involved; and (d) are provided in conformity with the individualized education program.
Functional analysis
Examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine one or more purposes (functions) that the behavior might serve for the learner.
Unusually high ability in one or more areas, to the point where students require special educational services to help them meet their full potential.
Group differences
Consistently observed differences (on average) among diverse groups of students (e.g., students of different genders or ethnic backgrounds).
The practice of educating all students, including those with severe and multiple disabilities, in neighborhood schools and general education classrooms.
Incremental view of intelligence
Belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice.
Individual differences
Variability in abilities and characteristics (intelligence, personality, etc.) among students at a particular age and within any group.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
U.S. legislation granting educational rights to people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities from birth until age 21; initially passed in 1975, it has been amended and reauthorized in 1997 and again in 2004. IDEA operates under six basic principles: zero reject, nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation, free and appropriate public education, least restrictive environment, due process, and parent and student participation in shared decision making with regard to educational planning.
Individualized education program (IEP)
Written document required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (P.L. 94-142) for every child with a disability; includes statements of present performance, annual goals, instructional objectives, specific educational services needed, extent of participation in the general education program, evaluation procedures, and relevant dates, and must be signed by parents as well as educational personnel.
Ability to modify and adjust behaviors to accomplish new tasks successfully; involves many different mental processes and may vary in nature depending on one's culture.
Intelligence test
General measure of current cognitive functioning, used primarily to predict academic achievement over the short run.
IQ score
Score on an intelligence test, determined by comparing a student's performance on the test with the performance of others in the same age group. For most tests, it is a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
Least restrictive environment (LRE)
Educational setting for special needs child that most closely resembles a regular school program and also meets child's special educational needs.
Long-term change in mental representations or associations due to experience.
Learning disability
Deficiency in one or more specific cognitive processes despite relatively normal cognitive functioning in other areas
Intellectual Disability
Disability characterized by significantly below-average general intelligence and deficits in practical and social skills.
Multicultural curriculum
Instructional concepts that integrate perspectives and experiences of numerous diverse groups and representing various cultures, ethnicities, ages, gender, and religions.
Multiple Intelligences (Theory of)
A theory that claims people are "intelligent" in many different areas, including cognitive, emotional, and social domains.
In assessment, data regarding the typical performance of various groups of students on a standardized test or other norm-referenced measure of a particular characteristic or ability.
Positive behavioral support (PBS)
Systematic intervention that addresses chronic misbehaviors by (a) identifying the purposes those behaviors might serve for a student and (b) providing more appropriate ways for a student to achieve the same ends.
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
A federal law that prohibits the denial of participation in, benefits of, or discrimination in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance because of a documented disability, history of a disability, or the appearance of having a disability.
Standard English
Form of English generally considered acceptable at school, as reflected in textbooks and grammar instruction.
Student at risk
Student who has a high probability of failing to acquire the minimum academic skills necessary for success in the adult world.
Student with special needs
Student who is different enough from peers that he or she requires specially adapted instructional materials and practices.
Group that resists the ways of the dominant culture and adopts its own norms for behavior.
Genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social environments.
Triarchic theory of intelligence
View of intelligence; proponents argue that that intelligent behavior arises from a balance between analytical, creative, and practical abilities.
Visual-spatial ability
Ability to imagine and mentally manipulate two-and three-dimensional figures.
How is student's learning influenced?
Age; cognitive development; language, culture, family, community values, individual experiences, talents, motivations and prior learning.
Sucessful teachers need to understand each individual and all of the variables of their lives to be able to understand how they will
What are the primary group differences?
Language, culture, family and community values.
What are the primary individual difference?
Individual experiences, talents, motivations, and prior learnings. (SCHEMA)
______ are Behaviors that are generally shared among students of specific cultural and ethnic groups.
Group differences
How are group differences identified?
when the behavior of the individuals in the same group is more similar, on average, than the behaviors of individuals from different groups.
What is the norm?
Average behavior of the members of a group. It is important to remember that individuals within a group will also be somewhat different from one another.
Teachers should keep cultural differences in mind when anticipating or evaluating student behaviors, as the _________ ________ that occurs when the child's home culture and school culture have conflicting expectations that can negatively affect student's academic achievement.
Cultural Mismatch.
List five Cultural differences
1. Use of Language and Dialect
2. Talking and remaining silent
3. Asking and responding to questioning
4. Taking turns in a conversation
5. A focus on cooperation or competition
form of speech that has certain unique pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group
Ethnic Group
people who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence.
a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services
Socioeconimic Status (SES)
A measure of social class based on income and education
Lower socioeconomic status
people,especially those who live in poverty, are at risk of academic difficulties and behavior problems. Children of Lower SES are frequently faced with: (list a few) Poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate and often unstable housing, and fewer community and home resources... less parental involvement, fewer classroom resources, and teachers with lower expectations, less safe neighborhoods.
Teachers should also recognize and attend to
individual differences in temperament, personality, and motivation
_________ hypothesized about general intelligence as a single (g).
______: Theoretical general factor in intelligence that influences one's ability to learn in a wide variety of contexts.
suggested intelligences is a triarchic, compromising analytical, creative, and practical intelligences.
Triarchic theory of intelligence is a view of intelligence that
proponents argue that intelligent behavior arises from a balance between analytical, creative and practical abilities.
What ability is associated with maturity is most influential in learning?
Listening to the ideas of others
Students with the same intelligence levels often approach classroom task and think about topics differently. These individual differences are due to ________ or ________ styles
Cognitive or Learning
Analytic learners
learners break down tasks into pieces and approach each piece separately
Holistic Learners
learners approach a task as a single integrated project.
What is an active learning classroom characterized by?
Children choosing their activities, materials, & experiences; learner-centered experiences; opportunities to touch, manipulate & experiment; a range of expectations for children; extensive talking, reading, & writing; opportunities to make decisions & be creative; respect & trust for the learner; integration of content areas; & assessment as part of the daily routine.
How do children learn through the process of play?
They learn through an inner process to explore, experiment, and discover.
How is functional play characterized?
Increased motor skill; desire to master physical challenges; repetition to acquire physical skills, as well as gross and fine motor skills; rough and tumble play; rehearsing specific skills to be used in games or sports; and experimenting with new materials & combining known materials in new ways to solve problems.
What characterizes constructive play?
Creating products like paintings, drawings, etc.; creating a poem or acting out a play; socio-dramatic play (creating forts, tents, etc.); and making collections, organizing, trading and displaying collections.
How is symbolic play characterized?
Playing out what can be imagined; fantasy play/pretend; assigning roles; playing with Barbie dolls or action figures; role experimentation based on experiences that are not concrete or direct; and playing with language (riddles, jokes, nonsense verse, etc.)
Basic Trust
The period of infancy in the first years of life where children who are loved and cared for develop trust and security.
Basic Mistrust
Children who are not loved and cared for become mistrustful and insecure.
This occurs during early childhood, where the well loved child welcomes his new sense of control, manifesting itself in tantrums, possessiveness, and the "no" and "mine" stage.
To feel bad about doing something wrong
Learning Initiative
A healthy child, usually up to school age, will develop his imagination, cooperate with others, and be both a leader and follower.
A child who feels guilt will be fearful, not quite fit in socially, be dependent on adults and have an underdeveloped imagination.
Entering school and up to junior high, the child will learn formal skills of life, initiate rules into free play, and desire self-discipline.
According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in learning new skills and knowledge, the result may be the development of a sense of ______________.
Identity Diffusion
Erikson's term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out "who am I?" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt
Perception Disabilities
difficulty with processing or interpreting incoming stimuli-not hearing loss or blindness
Visual Perception
The perception of cues that indicate the distance of an object
Auditory Perception
one's ability to process info from different sources, including hearing speech against background noise, sound discriminations, and sound recognition
Sensory Perception Disorder
One with which any tactile activity can cause discomfort and even pain. Some children are particularly sensitive to touch and this is usually discovered early on, when, as an infant, he will not like being touched or held.
Learning Disabilities
A disorder of the brain.
Behavioral Disorders
the person may feel guilt, shame, or anxiety when thinking about disturbing experiences or thoughts and start avoiding thoughts about them. This " thought avoiding" is negatively reinforced by the reduction of the anxiety and unpleasant feelings and eventually will become a habit of "not thinking about" these things; reinforcement
Social Emotional Disturbance
for the individual and often leads to behaviors that are socially disruptive or self-distructive
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
A disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by excessive anger, spite, and stubbornness
Conduct Disorder
in adolesence) individual must demonstrate a pattern of behavior in which other people's rights are violated, norms are ignored or rules are broken. Aggression to people & animals, destruction of property deceitfulness or theft, serious violation of rules.
Gifted Children
intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average.
Second Language Acquisition
The acquisition of a second language while retaining the knowledge of the native language.
ELL English Language Learners
English as a second language
Multicultural Education
recognizes cultural diversity and promotes an appreciation of all cultures.
Lau vs. Nichols
In result of a federal court decree, the San Francisco school system was integrated, and about 2,800 Chinese students didn't speak English. About 1,000 of these students received instruction on English, and the rest did not. Those who did not declared that their Fourteenth amendment rights were being violated, and they brought upon a class action suit
Cultural Development
*depends on the pace of the culture
ex: African and west Indian cultures actively encourage early motor strength while other cultures discourage and don't' allow infants to walk until 18 months.
Social Development
the theory that distinguishes between moral competence and moral performance
School Culture
the collective "way of life" characteristic of a school; a set of beliefs values, traditions, and ways of thinking and behaving that distinguishes one school from another.
Control Theory
The idea that two control systems- inner & outer controls- work against our tendencies to deviate
any consequence that increases the future likelihood of a behavior
Infant-Directed Speech
When you change the tone of your voice and simplify your sentences/words so that babies can better understand you. Very repetitive too.
Multimodal Perceptions
When the environment stimulates many senses at once, it gives the child a certain perception of information
The ability that the brain can change and learn through experience
Ecological Perspective
Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory which shows the relationship between the child and their surroundings/environment. Macro, Exo, Meso, and Microsystem.
Naturalistic Observation
An observation made in a person's daily routine and environment
Preoperational Stage
When kids usually start to remember symbols, like words. Usually ages 2 -7
Psychoanalytic Theory
The theory of human development, Sigmund, Freud, in which our emotions determine how we act
Psychosocial Development
Emotional development having to do with anger management, feelings, relationships, and personality development
Sociocultural Perspective
Adapting to cultural demands
Infants' specific, lasting, social relationships with others, especially parents and caregivers
Emotional Expression
The communication of feeling to others through facial expressions, gestures, and vocalizations
Goodness of Gift
A concept that refers to a match of the child's temperament and the demands of the environment
Freuds Stages
Oral Stage Freud, 1st stage
birth - 1 yr. Anal Stage Freud, 2nd stage
1 - 3yr. Phallic Stage Freud, 3rd stage
3-6yr. Latency Stage Freud, 4th stage
7-11yr. Genital Stage Freud, 5th stage
Ericksons stages of Early Childhood
Erickson's Stage 1 Infancy age 0-1 DESCRIPTION: In the first year of life, infants depend on others for food, warmth, and affection and therefore must be able to blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those.
Erickson's Stage 1 Infancy age 0-1 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If their needs are met consistently and responsively by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their env in feneral as well.
Erickson's Stage 1 Infancy age 0-1 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their env, even towards themselves.
Erickson's Stage 2: Toddler age 1-2 DESCRIPTION: Toddlers learn to walk talk, use toilets and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
Erickson's Stage 2: Toddler age 1-2 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If parents encourage their child's use of initiative and reassure her when she makes mistakes, the child will develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control and independence.
Erickson's Stage 3 Early childhood age 2-6 DESCRIPTION: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them. They now must learn to achieve a balance between eagerness for more adventure and more responsibility and learning to control impulses and childish fantasies.
Erickson's Stage 3 Early childhood age 2-6 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept w/o guilt that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays.
Erickson's Stage 3 Early childhood age 2-6 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.
Erickson's Stage 4 Elementary and middle school age 6-12 DESCRIPTION: School is the important even at this stage. Children learn to ake things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider. And they do all these while making the transition from the world of home into the world of peers.
Erickson's Stage 4 Elementary and middle school age 6-12 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence.
Erickson's Stage 4 Elementary and middle school age 6-12 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority.
Stage 5 Adolescence age 12-18 DESCRIPTION: This is the time when we ask the question Who am I? To successfully answer the question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the identity crisis which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face.
Stage 5 Adolescence age 12-18 POSITIVE OUTCOME: If the adolescent solves this conflict successfullly, he will come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future.
Stage 5 Adolescence age 12-18 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices esp about vocation, sexual orientation and his role in life in general.
Stage 6 Young adulthood age 19-40 DESCRIPTION: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you are not developmentally copmlete until you are capable of intimacy. An ind who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.
Stage 6 Young adulthood age 19-40 POSITIVE OUTCOME: Adult individuals can form close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity.
Stage 6 Young adulthood age 19-40 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, they will fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world.
Stage 7 Middle adulthood age 40-65 DESCRIPTION: By generativity Erkison refers to the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care for others through parenting, for instance. Erikson suggested that adults need children as much as children need adults and that this stage reflets the need to create a living legacy.
Stage 7 Middle adulthood age 40-65 POSITIVE OUTCOME: People can solve this crisis by having and nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways.
Stage 7 Middle adulthood age 40-65 NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If this crisis is not successfully resolved, the person will remain self-centered and experience stagnation later in life.
Stage 8 late adulthood age 65- death DESCRIPTION: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things and seeing it filled with pleasure and satisfaction or disappointments and failures.
Stage 8 late adulthood age 65- death POSITIVE OUTCOME: If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within himself and with others, he will accept death with a sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not fear life, said Erikson the healthy adult will not fear death.
Stage 8 late adulthood age 65- death NEGATIVE OUTCOME: If not, the ind will despair and fear death.
Piagets stages
Piaget, 1st stage Preoperational Piaget, 2nd stage Concrete Operational Piaget, 3rd stage Formal Operational Piaget, 4th stage
Fetal Development
day 1 gametes fuse to form one cell with 46 chromosomes
days 3-4 egg travels down fallopian tube to the uterus
days 5-9 egg implanted in the wall of the uterus; starts to get outside nourishment and gets bigger
days 10-14 embryo starts producing its own hormones that also affect the mom
day 20 foundations of brain, spinal cord, nervous system are established(gastrula)
day 21 heartbeat begins
day 35 can see beginnings of fingers, eyes, hands, etc.; things become distinct^; about the size of a grain of rice
day 40 functioning nervous system; brainwaves can be detected
week 6 brain begins to control movements
week 7 teeth, eyelids develop
week 8 about an inch long; starts being called a fetus; looks like a tiny baby; everything it needs it pretty-much has; responds to touch; coordinated muscular/nervous system
week 9 fingers can grasp
week 11 about 2 inches long
week 12 start to have sleeping/breathing
week 13 starts to grow hair; gender can be determined
month 4 about 8-10 inches long; ears funcitoning
month 5 about a foot long; starts to be startled by things
month 6 has a good chance of surviving if it is born premature
month 7 starts recognizing the mothers voice
months 8-9 just more growth
4 Stages of Literacy Development
1. Beginning Literacy
2. Early Intermediate Literacy
3. Intermediate Literacy
4. Early Advanced Literacy
Literacy Development
Beginning LiteracyStudents demonstrate little or no receptive or productive English skills. Beginning to understand a few concrete details during unmodified instruction.

In the beginning stage, students may go through a silent period where they speak very little, if at all. We must acknowledge that they need time to build their vocabulary and confidence before they feel comfortable enough to speak in class. Frequent opportunities for these students to interact with their peers in a more social setting, such as on the playground, will help them build their vocabulary and confidence.
Activities for Beginning Literacy Word cards
Personal dictionaries
Identify key words in stories
Listening to oral reading
Oral story retelling
Drawing as a means of written expression Early Intermediate LiteracyStudents continue to develop receptive and productive English skills. Able to identify and understand more concrete details during unmodified instruction.
2. Early Intermediate Literacy
3. Interm
During the second stage, students will begin to use one-word utterances and short phrases to communicate socially, express a need, or reply to a question. We need to again provide these students with frequent opportunities in the classroom to interact with each other and TALK to each other. We must be careful to encourage their language use and not correct them in front of their peers. Activities for Early Intermediate Literacy Vocabulary development
Predict/confirm events in a story
Fill-in blanks
Complete the sentence Intermediate LiteracyStudents begin to tailor English language skills to meet communication and learning demands with increasing accuracy. They are able to identify and understand more concrete details and some major abstract concepts during unmodified instruction.
3. Intermediate Literacy
During the third stage, students are beginning to understand more abstract concepts and are beginning to use English to learn content. Activities for Intermediate Literacy Choral reading
Silent reading or structured readers or patterned stories
Student developed stories
Arranging words into sentences or paragraphs Early Advanced LiteracyStudents begin to combine the elements of English language in complex, cognitively demanding situations and are able to use English as a means of learning in content areas.
4. Early Advanced Literacy
During the fourth stage, students can use English to learn content and can use English in cognitively demanding situations. Activities for Early Advanced Literacy Word identification, categorization
Semantic organizers
Silent and oral reading
Structured book reports
Completing the story
Use dictionaries and other reference materials. Compare and Contrast the StagesThe first two stages involve the development of social language (BICS).

The third and fourth stages incorporate the addition of academic language (CALPS). It is important to note that content area learning does not come into play until the fourth stage. Prior to this stage, students are in the "learning to listen, speak, read and write stage". It is not until the fourth stage that students are able to "listen, speak, read and write to learn".
Critical Thinking
Is rationally deciding what to believe or what to do. When one rationally decides something, he or she evaluates information to see if it makes sense, whether it's coherent, and whether the argument is well founded on evidence.
Creative Thinking
New and original behavior that yields a productive and culturally appropriate result.
Cooperative Learning
Students work together to solve a problem or achieve a goal.
Basic Concepts of Cognitivism
*Information Processing
Basic Concepts of Social Learning Theory
*Reciprocal Determinism
*Vicarious Learning
Basic Concepts of Constructivism
Problem-Based Learning
*Zone of Proximal Development
*Inquiry/Discovery Learning
Basic Concepts of Behaviorism
*Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards
The breadth and depth of content to be covered in a curriculum over a certain period of time, e.g. week, grading period, year, or K-12.
The order in which content is delivered to learners over time.
the Components of Thematic Units
Selecting a Theme
*Designing integrated Learning Activities
*Selecting Resources
*Designing Assessments
Components of Interdisciplinary Units
Generating Applicable Topics
*Planning Instruction for each Discipline
*Designing Integrative Assessment
Identify a variety of instructional planning partners
Special education teachers
*Library media specialists
*Teachers of the gifted and talented
*IEP team members
*Para educators
Cognitive processes associated with learning
Critical Thinking, Creative Thinking, Questioning, Inductive and Deductive Reasoning, Problem Solving, Planning, Memory, Recall
Instructional Models
Instructional Strategies Associated with Direct Instruction
Explicit Teaching
*Drill and Practice
*Guides for Reading, Listening, Viewing
Instructional Strategies Associated with Indirect Instruction
*Case Studies
*Concept Mapping
*Reading for Meaning
*Cloze Procedures
Identify Complex Cognitive Processes
Problem Solving
*Critical Thinking
Inductive Reasoning
Collecting data to draw a conclusion that may or may not be true.
Deductive Reasoning
Process of drawing a logical inference about something that must be true, given other information that has already been presented as true.
Joint communication and decision making among educational professionals to create an optimal learning environment for students and especially for students with disabilities. A philosophy about how to relate to others—how to learn and work.
Direct Instruction
An overarching method for teaching students that includes carefully planned lessons presented in small, attainable increments with clearly defined goals and objectives. Often includes lecture, demonstration, review of student performance, and student examination.
Information Processing
A means used to learn and remember knowledge
Reciprocal Teaching
A cooperative learning model used to improve reading, in which students play the teacher's role
Inquiry Teaching
An investigative process of learning in which students are asked to pose questions, analyze data, and develop conclusions or generalizations.
is the process of observing, recording, and documenting children's growth and behavior
developmental norms
are characteristics and behaviors considered normal for children in specific age groups
anecdotal records
the simplest form of direct observation, is a brief narrative account of specific incident
are designed to record the presence or absence of specific traits or behaviors
participation chart
can be developed to gain information on specific aspects of children's behavior
rating scale
are used to record the degree to which a quality or trait is present
is a collection of materials that shows a person's abilities, accomplishments and progress overtime
Direct Observations
is when behavior or events are observed while something is happening.
Indirect Observations
the observer is not always present and someone else is telling you want they saw happened
Objective Observations
Just what you see
on-going assessments
provide more in-depth information and useful in tracking child's progress and change
informal observation
most often used to collect data by preschool teachers and more appropriate for program planning
the process of reviewing information and finding value in it
formal observation
standardized tests and research instruments used to identify developmental norms
purposes of assessment
plan developmentally appropriate curriculum, gain insight into child's learning style and needs, interests, strengths and weaknesses, identify classroom
Early Childhood Developmental milestones birth-60months
4 mos fine motor grasps rattle, plays with hands together, inspects hands, carries objects to mouth.
4 mos gross motor lifts head up and looks around will roll from prone to supine, when pulled to sitting position, no longer has head lag, when held in standing position, attempts to maintain some weight support
4 mos social and language becomes bored when left alone, begins to show memory, squeals and vocalizations change with mood
6 mos fine motor will hold spoon or rattle, will drop object and reach for second offered object, holds bottle
6 mos gross motor begins to raise abdoment off table, sits but posture still shaky, may sit with legs apart; holds arms straight as propr between legs, supports almost full weight when pulled to standing position
6 mos social and language recognizes parents, holds out arms to be picked up, begins to imitate sounds, uses one-syllable sounds (ma, mu, da, di)
8 mos fine motor beginning thumbfinger grasping, releases object at will, grasps for toys out of reach
8 mos gross motor stis securely wo support, bears weight on legs when supported, may stand holding on
8 mos social language responds to word no, dislikes diaper changes, makes consonant sounds t, d, w, uses two syllables such as da-da, but does not asribe meaning to them
12 mos fine motor may hold cup and spoon and feed self fairly well with practice, can offer toys and release them, releases cube in cup
12 mos gross motor able to twist and turn and maintain posture, able to sit from standing position, may stand alone, at least momentarily
12 mos social and language shows emotions of jealousy, affection, anger fear, may develop habit of security blanket or favorite toy, da-da or ma-ma, recognizes objects by name, imitates animal sounds, understands simple verbal commands (give it to me)
60 mos 5 (yr) fine motor able to dress self with minimal assistance, able to draw three-part human figure, draws square following demonstration, colors within lines
60 mos (5 yr) gross motor hops on one foot, catches ball bounced to him or her two out of three times, able to demonstrate heel-toe walking, jumps rope
60 mos (5 yr) social and language eager to follow rules, less rebellious, relies on outside authority to control the world, has 2100 word vocabulary, recognizes three colors, asks meanings of words, uses sentences of six to eight words
gross motor behavior
refers to postural reactions such as head balance, sitting, creeping, standing and walking.
motor development
fine and gross motor behavior
Fine motor behavior
refers to the use of hands and fingers in the prehensile approach to grasping and manipulating an object
social-adaptive behavior
refers to the interactions of the infant or chil with other persons as well as the ability to organize stimuli, to perceive relationships between objects, to dissect a whole into its component parts, to reintegrate these parts in a meaningful fashion, and to solve practical problems. Ex. are smiling at other persons and learning to feed self.
language behavior
used broadly to include visible and audible forms of communication, whether facial expression, gesture, postural movements or vocalizations.
purpose of developmental testing
prognosis/diagnosis, eligibility for certain programs, evaluation of outcomes, treatment planning
basic methods of assessment
clinical observation, interview, history, assessment tools
age equivelent score
mean chronological age represented by a certain test score
percentile score
the number of children of the same age or grade level who would be expected to score lower thatn the child tested
Raw score
total number of items that are passed or correct on a test
three twos in row... three passes in a row
three zeros in row... three fails in a row
consistency or repeatability
between testers
consistency or repeatability
reliability of the test
standard error of measurement
gives and estimate of the margin of error associated with a particular test score
content validity
does it measure what it reports to measure
standard scores
expressed as deviations or variations from the mean score for a group - expressed in units of standard deviation
face validity
can you see the importance of the test or questions at face value
concurrent validity
compared to a gold standard
predictive validity
does it predict a pattern for the future
guidelines for selection of tests
purpose, age range, areas tested, time required, administration, appropriatness, cost, reliability, validity
acceptance to all who will be affected by the test including the children and families screened, the professionals who receive resulting referrals and the community
the ease by which as test can be taught, learned and administered
based on the prevalence of the problem to be screened and on the applicability fo the test to the particular popluation
most appropriate when the purpose is tto determine whether an infant has a motor delay or to determine eligibility for early intervention
comparison to a specific criteria rather than comparison to a "normal" group
Therapy uses of referenced tests
Criterion used more for evaluation of the effects of physical therapy and treatment planning
norm-referenced tests
PDMS, Bayley, Gessell, Battalle
criterion-referenced tests
norm vs. criterion
norm = monitor progress
criterion = measure effects of PT
standardized screening tests
intended to differentiate between those persons who are normal and healthy in a particular respect form those who are not
examples standardized screening tests
Milani - Comparetti Motor Development screening test, Denver II
Standardized SCREENING
-to ID the risk for dysfunction in specific categories for children
-to detect the risk for dysfunctin in indivual child
-to formulate a register or monitoring system for children at risk
-usually done at regular intervals
standardized EVALUATION
help team determine diagnosis
-identify atypical development
-obtain baseline information
-determine eligibility for service
-norm-referenced or formal
-done once or infrequently
Standardized ASSESSMENT
plan intervention program
-delineate strengths, weaknesses, and needs
-criterion-referenced or informal
-on-going basis
bottom line standardized tests
norm-referenced assesments enable the PT to document the infants level of development while criterion-referenced assessment serves as measure of direct effects of PT
PDMS-2 peabody developmental motor scales-2
birth -71 months
- gross motor and fine motor
-45-60 min
HELP: Hawaii EArly Learning profile
children with known delays or disabilites
-0-3 years and 3-6 years
-gross motor, fine motor, cognitive, social, self help, language
-20-30 min
Bayley II
-three parts (mental scale, motor scale, behaviour scale)
-premies, HIV, neonatal asphyxia, DD, autsim, down syndrome
Early intervention developmental profile (EIDP)
6 scales: perceptual fine motor, gross motor, cognition, language, social or emotional, self care
-birth -36 mo
gross motor development
Gross motor : 6 weeks Head level in ventral suspension
Gross motor : 3 months Head at 90 degrees in ventral suspension
Gross motor : 6 months No head lag, Sit with support, on Forearms
Gross motor : 9 months Crawls, Sits steadily and pivots
Gross motor : 12 months Pulls to stand, cruises, walks alone
Gross motor : 18 months Walks well and runs
Gross motor : 24 months Kicks ball, Climbs stairs one at a time
Gross motor : 3 years Throws overarm, stands on one food
Limit age : Head control 4 months
Limit age : Sitting 9 months
Limit age : Standing 12 months
Limit age: walking 18 months
fine motor development
Vision/Fine motor : 6 weeks Fixes and follows
Vision/Fine motor : 3 months Hold's objects
Vision/Fine motor: 6 months Palmar grasp - Transfers between hands
Vision/Fine motor: 9 months Pincer Grip
Vision/Fine motor: 12 months Casting,Puts block in cup
Vision/Fine motor: 18 months 2-4 cube tower, Straight scribbles
Vision/Fine motor: 24 months 6-7 cube tower, Circular scribbles
Vision/Fine motor: 3 years Scissor use, shapes : Circle (3), Cross (4), Square (5), Triangle (6), Diamond (7)
Limit age : Fix and follow 3 months
Limit age : Reach 6 months
Limit age : Transfer between hands 8 months
Limit age : Pincer grip 12 months
hearing/speech/language development
Hearing,Speech and language : 6 weeks Still to sound
Hearing,Speech and language : 3 months Turns to sound at ear level
Hearing,Speech and language : 6 months Babbles
Hearing,Speech and language : 9 months 2-3 syllable babble
Hearing,Speech and language : 12 months 1-2 words (not dada / mama)
Hearing,Speech and language : 18 months 6-12 words, 2 body parts
Hearing,Speech and language : 24 months Joints 2-3 words, Knows 5-6 body parts
Hearing,Speech and language : 3 years Sentences, names 4+ pictures
Limit age : polysyllable babble 7 months
Limit age : constant babble 10 months
Limit age : 6 words 18 months
Limit age : Joining words 2 years
Limit age : 3 word sentence 2.5 years
Social emotional behavioral development
Social, emotional and behavioural: 6 weeks Smiles
Social, emotional and behavioural: 3 months Laughs
Social, emotional and behavioural: 6 months Finger feeds, works for toy
Social, emotional and behavioural: 9 months Waves, Plays pat-a-cake and indicates wants
Social, emotional and behavioural: 12 months Imitates, object permanence, drinks from cup
Social, emotional and behavioural: 18 months Use spoon, Symbolic play
Social, emotional and behavioural: 24 months Dry in the day, Removes some clothing
Social, emotional and behavioural: 3 years Fork and spoon, Names friends, interactive play
Limit age: smile 8 weeks
Fear of stranger 10 months
Feeds self 18 months
Symbolic play 2.5 years
Interactive play 3.5 years
public schools teach
promotion of democratic prinicples, teaching of common values, and educating a diverse culture of global society
attributes of reflective practicioners
admit when they don't know something, have caring attitude, willingness to collaborate, critically analyze themselves, teacher/student viewing in reflective lens, demonstrate rational, careful thought to improve practices, be aware of own culture, values, and beliefs, think of diversity as positive, show persistence, have interpersonal communication skills, and value the importance of empowering learners
ways teachers can advocate for learners
professional developement, knowing the latest educational practices, attend meetings on students, open communications with all involved, modifying and accommodating learning practices
public law 94-142
Least restrictive enviornment
Massachusetts Law of Education 1642
parents were responsible for teaching their children to read and write
Massachusetts Law of Education 1647
communities must hire schoolmaster if there were more than 50 families in the area
Land Ordinance of 1785
helped to establish a way to fund public education
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
provided land in the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regions. It was stated that religion, morality, and knowlege were necessary for a strong government. Federal govt beman to create public school system and offer to all children
Plessy vs. Ferguson
seperate railroad cars were constitutional
Oregon School Case of 1925
Americanize schools by making 8-16 year olds attend public schools
Brown vs. Board of Education
May 17, 1954 US Supreme Court announced its decision that seperate educational facilities are unequal (The Little Rock Nine)
Friedrich Froebel
father of kindergarten 1837 (importance of play)
Lawrence Kohlberg
His theory states there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided
into 2 stages. 1. Pre-conventional, 2. conventional, His theory focuses on moral
reasoning rather than overt behaviour.
maria montessori
Stage 1: Introduce a concept by lecture, lesson, experience, book read-aloud, etc.

Stage 2: Process the information and develop an understanding of the concept through work, experimentation, and creativity.

Stage 3: "Knowing," which theorist described as possessing an understanding of something that is demonstrated by the ability to pass a test with confidence, teach the concept to another, or express understanding with ease.
Jean piaget
Swiss psychologist who pioneered the study of cognitive development in children; fourstage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
Earliest level of moral development, in which self-interest determines what is moral
conventional stage
a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
post conventional
follows self-chosen principles of justice and right. Aware that peopl hold differet values and seeks creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. Balances concern for idividual with concern for common good.
the adjustment of one's schemas to include newly observed events and experiences
A mechanism proposed by Piaget to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next.
intrinsic motivation
Engaging in activities because they are personally rewarding or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations
learned helplessness
condition in which repeated attempts to control a behavior fail, resulting in belief that the situation is uncontrollable
an explicit understanding of how learning works and an awareness of yourself as a learner.
readiness to learn
A context within which a students more basic needs (such as sleep, safety, and love) are met and the student is cognitively ready for developmentally appropriate problem-solving and learning.
temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
a conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world
application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation
zone of proximal development
in Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they recieve proper guidance and instruction
Refers to the Americans With Disabilities Act. The ADA applies to equal access to employment, public services, public accommodations, public transportation and telecommunications. ADA Refers to the Americans With Disabilities Act. The ADA applies to equal access to employment, public services, public accommodations, public transportation and telecommunications.
Due Process in education
Schools are required to provide due process (legal steps and proceedings designed to protect individual's constitutional rights) safeguards to protect rights of children with disabilities and their parents
Example: parent consent to testing and evaluations, confidentiality of records, private testing at public expense when disagreements on testing arise between parents and schools
Individuals with disabilities education act
(IDEA) ensures rights of nondiscriminatory treatment in all aspect of disabled individuals lives; fair and appropriate education, appropriate evaluation, individualized education program, least restrictive environment, parent and student participation in decision making, procedural safeguards
Individual education plan
an educational plan designed by a child study team (including a teacher) and agreed to by the student's parents or legal guardians describing what learning targets the child should attain, the time frame for attaining them, the proposed methods for attaining them, and he methods of evaluating the student's progress in achieving the learning targets
Least Restrictive environment
provision in IDEA that requires students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate
Section 504
A federal law that prohibits the denial of participation in, benefits of, or discrimination in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance because of a documented disability, history of a disability, or the appearance of having a disability.
Alternative assessments
*Term* include anecdotal records of student behavior, portfolios, checklists of student progress, and student/teacher conferences. *Term* can be contrasted with traditional assessments. Term provide a view of a student's process and product, which is closely related to the instTerm include anecdotal records of student behavior, portfolios, checklists of student progress, and student/teacher conferences. *Term* can be contrasted with traditional assessments. Term provide a view of a student's process and product, which is closely related to the instructional activity. Traditional assessments usually provide only a view of the product of the learning, such as the score on a test, and may not be as closely related to classroom instruction.
Differentiated instruction
Practice of individualizing instructional methods, and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals, to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
Testing accomodations
1. Setting
2. Mode of presentation (read aloud, paraphrasing, providing feedback)
3. Response mode and timing ( oral response, dictate to scribe, multiple sessions, extended time)
Age appropriate knowledge and behavior
Teachers must understand their students' physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. Student progress is seen on a developmental continuum, and growth, or lack of progress toward age-appropriate growth, must be recorded and reported to parents. A student whose knowledge or behavior is outside the norm for the age group may need differentiated instruction or other supports. For example, a ten-year-old student who has a well-developed understanding of working with fractions may need more challenging work with fractions than his or her grade-level peers. Likewise, a student who is unable to form the letters of the alphabet in grade 2 may need supports for fine motor skill development.
cognitive patterns
Students make meaning in a variety of ways. According to Piaget's theory, children move from the preoperational to the concrete operational and then the formal operational stage during their school years. One students can make sense more easily though listening, while another prefers visual information. Successful teachers understand their students' thinking styles — especially for those with learning disabilities and those who are accelerated — and plan lessons to accommodate a wide variety of ways to make meaning.
family culture
Families can provide valuable funds of knowledge (Moll) for teachers to tap into and utilize for successful lessons. Communicating with families, knowing the school community, and appreciating the differences and similarities of family cultures will help teachers offer instruction that meets the needs of all children.
formal operational thinkers
Children approximately ages 11-15 develop hypothetical and abstract thinking. Students at this stage can use logical operations to work abstract problems. For example, students at this stage are better able to complete algorithms when working math problems as opposed to using math manipulatives to understand the problems.
functional mental retardation
a diagnosis determined by a medical professional for a child who exhibits difficulties with age-specific activities, communication, daily living activities, and getting along with others
Kinesthetic learner
Term learners process information through moving and doing. They learn through acting out scenes, putting on plays, moving to the beat, pacing out measurements on the sidewalk, and so on.
learning disabilities
disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills such as processing language or grasping mathematical concepts
tactile learner
Term learners process information through touching. They learn through active involvement with the physical world — hands-on experiences.
visual learner
prefer to see the information and read material. They learn most effectively with graphs, illustrations, diagrams, timelines, photos, pie charts, and visual design.
linguistic patterns
knowing different types of dialects and using them as sources of enrichment in the classrooms
multicultural education
a general term that describes a variety of strategies schools use to accommodate cultural differences in teaching and learning
physical issues
..., Successful teachers communicate with the school nurse, families, school mental health professionals, teacher assistants, and the student to understand how the student's *term* can be supported so that the child can learn at an optimal level. *Term* common among students include vision, hearing, and mobility problems. Some students suffer from asthma, seizures, and allergies. A teacher should be aware of any termTermuccessful teachers communicate with the school nurse, families, school mental health professionals, teacher assistants, and the student to understand how the student's *term* can be supported so that the child can learn at an optimal level. *Term* common among students include vision, hearing, and mobility problems. Some students suffer from asthma, seizures, and allergies. A teacher should be aware of any term and procedures to ensure the child's safety, especially during field trips, fire drills, and other emergencies.
social and emotional issues
...may be caused by/confused by differences in socioeconomic status (SES)

Some students have physical or mental health issues that lead to term in the classroom. Collaborating with families and colleagues who know the child's needs can help the teacher create a successful learning environment for the students. Students who have low self-esteem, have anxiety, or are easily distractible may also present social or emotional behavioral issues in school.
students and school culture
..., Students are affected by the school's *term*. Issues that impact *term* include bullying, teasing, cliques, threats to personal safety, freedom to take risks or make mistakes, collaborative groups, gender relationships, and the structure of the classroom environment. Students are also affected by the larger termtermtudents are affected by the school's *term*. Issues that impact *term* include bullying, teasing, cliques, threats to personal safety, freedom to take risks or make mistakes, collaborative groups, gender relationships, and the structure of the classroom environment. Students are also affected by the larger term. School policies, procedures, norms for dress, communication expectations, and teacher responsiveness all affect a student's experience in school.
David Ausubel
..., Follower of Jean Piaget.
Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theory, - the primary process in learning is subsumation, where new material is in relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a substantive, non verbatim base.
Learning is an active process.
lee canter
Assertive Disciple:
Students and Teachers have rights and needs in the classroom.
Teachers should model through their own behavior the kind of behavior that they are expecting from their students and practice positive repetitions
Negative for violate; positive consequences for following
There is a discipline hierarchy
You should established limited rules and teach them to your students
william glasser
Application in the Classroom:
-Guided learning- making the children believe they are coming up with the ideas
-Look at things through the students eyes- bring self down to child's level
-Integrate a variety of ways to teach in your classroom
-Consider creating rules as a class
william glasser
"Choice Theory" or "Control Theory"
- Teachers Focus on behavior, not the student
- Use class meetings to change behavior in the classroom
- Students take ownership in the rules they help establish
- Based on creating a safe space to learn
jacob kounin
..., - Wanted to look at teachers at the top as well as those at the bottom...he found 4 characteristics that a teacher needs
1. With-it-ness: means that you have eyes all over you...that you see pick up on what's going on in your classroom
a. Pick up on body language
b. Know what is going to happen before it happens
d. This can be developed with practice
2. Over-lapping activities: not everybody has to be doing the same thing
a. Managing different things at the same time
3. Maintenance of Group Focus: making sure that all of your groups/students are engaged in and focused on learning
4. Movement management: having unused time
b. Transitions; any times you have movement or is a great opportunity to misbehave
1) Warn your students ahead of time
assertive discipline
classroom management approach (Canter)
based on establishing clear limits and
expectations, insisting on acceptable
student behavior and delivering appropriate
consequences when rules are broken.
promoted supportive and preventative discipline by recognizing the importance of classroom atmosphere (socially & emotionally). He suggested teachers use "sane messages" in which they simply describe the issue or event of concern. This app approach attempts to leave students self esteem intact and enables students to consider the situation and develop their own solutions with respectful support from their teacherteacher.ownkjjjconsiderconsider the
class management centers on the strength of effective lesson planning. the teacher opens a lesson with an "anticipatory set" to help students connect new content to be learned. then the teacher provides opportunity for individual and extended practice.
fredric jones
Positive Class Discipline
Emphasis on the teacher's nonverbal communication
Emphasis on classroom organization
"Say, See, Do Teaching" -
Jone's Model of Skill Clusters
• Skill Cluster 1: classroom structure to discourage misbehavior
• Skill Cluster 2: limit setting through body language (yours as a teacher)
• Skill Cluster 3: Using Say, See, Do
o You say, they do something, they do more.
• Skill Cluster 4: responsibility training through incentive system
• Skill Cluster 5: providing efficient help to individual students
o Efficient help: arrange seating and make "what page" questions less frequent
o Providing graphic reminders that the students can use rather than asking many questions to teacher
o Limit 10-20 seconds per student
refers to the sounds that letters represent and how these sounds and letters combine to form words.
private speech
children's self-directed speech that they use to guide their behavior and talk themselves through new tasks -- this gradually turns to inner speech
process of moving forward, developing step-by-step, gradual improvement
developmental domains
1. speech and language: receptive (take in), expressive (give out)
2. social and emotional: sharing, taking turns, following directions
3. cognitive (academics): writing, counting, reading
4. self-help: independence, eating, toileting, hygiene
5. motor development: fine(using hands, tying shoes, writing, cut, color), gross (physical, run, jump, kick)
affects of bilingualism for development
very advantageous in childhood
-post. consequences for cognitive development and certain aspects of language awareness
-US dual language programs support minorities academic learning
functional retardation
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
higher order thinking
A level of thinking that requires the student to think critically. These levels would be at the application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation levels on the Bloom's taxonomy scale.
inductive/deductive thinking
inductive: proceed from the particlar tot he general; deductive: general to the more specific
project approach
an instructional method through which students engage in an in-depth investigation of a real world topic worthy of their attention and effort. The process often includes field trips or expert guests and a culminating event through which children present the results of their research
student centered models
inquiry, discovery, cooperative, pair-share, jigsaw, STAD, teams, games, collaborative learning, concept models, discussion models, laboratories, project-based learning, simulations
antibias curriculum
an approach that seeks to provide children with an understanding of social and behavioral problems related to prejudice and seeks to provide them with the knowledge, attitude, and skills to combat prejudice.
standardized, achievement, aptitude, structured observations, anecdotal notes, assess. of prior knowledge, stud. responses, portfolios, essay prompts, fournals, self-evaluations, performance assess.
professional development
Organizing and personally managing a cumulative series of work experiences to add to one's knowledge, motivation, perspectives, skills and job performance
permissive parenting
a parenting style in which parents provide emotional support but exercise little control over their children.
the tendency to fill in missing information in order to complete an otherwise incomplete figure or statement
Assessment after instruction is finished; also called formal assessment, purpose of documenting after instruction.
formative assessment
assessment during the course of instruction rather than after it is completed
standards based
basing curriula, teaching and assessment of student leanring on rigorous academic standards.
norm referenced
a test is norm-referenced when students are measured in relation to other students, in other words, a "norm"
criterion based
correlates with other established tests
range of perception or understanding
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
cognitive development
development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving
individuals behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionaly responding (temp+environment= personality)
Reasons for assessing academic growth
-helps placement decisions, aids in designing curriculum, leads to improvements in instruction, better classroom management
Developing assessment strategies
limitations or grades in general, knowledge gained, skills attained, improved social interactions
AIDS causing virus which attacks cells that help fight off infections
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Aids prevention
*reducing risk behaviors
*HIV screening
*preventing mother-to-child transmission
Research-CDC, medical professional, Internet search
Family and medical contact, respect for child
clean classroom and awareness of weakness
treat as normal child
Blood borne pathogens-gloves, biohazard disposal, washing hands
esteem needs
need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others
love and belongingness needs
need for friendship, need to belong, desire to find a life partner/mate, desire to have children, need to give and receive love. Maslow
physiological needs
air, water,food sleep, sex
safety needs
A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm